Appendix A

Appendix A

Range Statements

(informative)

 

This appendix includes all of the Range Statements from the Units of Competency. It does not include other project management terms, nor does it include performance based competency terms. Where the Range Statements contain lists, the lists are generally illustrative and not exhaustive.

Accepted. The product of the project or the outputs of a prior phase may be accepted with uncorrected variances.

Actions in the context of managing stakeholder relationships may include problem solving, negotiating, accommodating, compromising, collaborating, or cooperating. Actions in the context of managing project progress may include risk responses, corrective measures, and documented exemptions handled outside of the agreed change control processes.

Addressed includes acceptance as is, acceptance with modification, or rejection. Interests, needs, and opportunities may be addressed without being satisfied. Conflicts and variances may be addressed without being eliminated.

Appropriate stakeholders. See stakeholders.

Approval is provided with the expectation that the plan for the project will be updated as the project progresses.

Baselines are the agreed to reference points for measuring performance and progress of the project. Baselines must include a budget and a schedule and may also include scope, work, resources, revenue, cash flow, communication, quality, risk, or other aspects of the project.

Behavioural expectations may include responding to conflict; dealing with differences in skill, background, culture, or other personal characteristics of individuals involved with the project; and may be influenced by the phase of the project life-cycle.

Budgets may be expressed in monetary or other units. Budget detail may vary based on the needs of the project, funds availability, and accounting rules.

Change control processes are used to capture, assess, approve or reject, track, and implement changes to the product of the project. They may be developed as part of the project or may be provided by the project’s parent organisation.

Characteristics of the product of the project may include physical dimensions, quality requirements, or other factors that may affect the use of the product of the project. Desired characteristics may include characteristics that will not be included in the completed product of the project.

Closure activities may include acceptance testing, finalising accounts and contracts, releasing project resources, informing stakeholders, celebrating closure, documenting and communicating knowledge, and capturing lessons learned.

Communication needs may include content required, method used (e.g., electronic, phone, meeting), geographical dispersion, protocols, cultural differences, and confidentiality requirements. They may be documented formally or informally and may be included in other project documentation.

Completion criteria may be identified in the plan for the project or may be contained in descriptions of the product of the project such as specifications; user requirements; quality requirements; health, safety, environment, and community requirements; or other application area specific documents.

Consideration of interests should be done in an ethical manner.

Corrective action may include steps taken to prevent future problems, problem solving, communication, conflict resolution, decision making, preparation of change requests, and implementing risk responses. Where the project manager’s authority is limited, corrective action may also include requests for action directed to the responsible parties.

Desired characteristics. See characteristics.

Determination of evaluation techniques may consider multiple viewpoints and perspectives, cause and effect relationships, validity, sufficiency, reliability, fairness, relevance to project type and context, impact on the project, cost/benefit of the evaluation process, and the use of subject matter experts in the design or conduct of the evaluation process.

Ensuring may include performing, supervising, or directing.

Evaluation may rely on information gained from trend analysis, forecasting, strategic alignment reviews, and reading the internal and external environments.

Evaluation purpose may include who the evaluation is for, what is being evaluated, and what use is to be made of the evaluation. The purpose may be for improvement of current or future projects; for evaluation of project management success, product success, individual or team performance, or organisational capability; or for driving particular aspects of performance.

Evaluation techniques should relate to purpose and may be formative (during the project), summative (at the close of the project), and qualitative or quantitative.

Exclusions are potential work-items, or the results of work-items, that might reasonably be expected by a stakeholder but which will not be included in the work of this project.

External environment may include the organisation in which the project is conducted, inter-project dependencies, technological advances, and legal, social, economic, environmental or political changes. The significance of the external factors will vary in relation to the nature of the project.

Expectations. See interests.

External stakeholders. See stakeholders.

Feedback may be positive or negative and may include follow up activities.

Identified stakeholders See stakeholders.

Improvements may include changes to project management processes and procedures as well as to the product of the project.

Individual development involves enhancing individual skills. Needs are for skills directly related to the work of the project. Opportunities are for skills that benefit the individual or the organisation. Development may be provided in formal or informal contexts.

Interests may include needs, wants, expectations, or requirements. Interests may be stated or implied. Interests may be related to the product of the project or to how the activities of the project are conducted.

Interpersonal skills may include leadership skills, verbal and non-verbal communication skills, decision making, dealing with emotions and stress, conflict management, trust building, negotiating, demonstrating sensitivity to diversity issues, and modelling desired behaviour. The application of interpersonal skills may be influenced by the phase of the project life-cycle.

Knowledge includes information gained and lessons learned from other projects.

Legal requirements may include legislation and regulations; authority approvals; contract and sub-contract provisions; operational health and safety; discrimination; industrial relations; fair trade; internal business controls; and environmental issues. Contractual provisions may need to be addressed from both the buyer’s and the seller’s perspectives.

Lessons learned may apply to a single phase, to the entire project, or to future projects, and may include organisational issues.

Measurement may include feedback obtained from stakeholders, variances from plan, changes in stakeholder interests, and changes in assumptions and constraints.

Monitoring in the project context will generally require paying special attention to potential causes or sources of interpersonal conflict.

Needs. See interests for stakeholder needs. See individual development for development needs.

Opportunities. See individual development.

Outcomes are the result of the delivery of the project outputs and may occur after the project is complete.

Participation may include correspondence, attendance at meetings, or review of documentation.

Performance data may include measures collected and analysed during the project and lessons learned captured during the project.

Phases may also be called stages or iterations. A series of project phases may be called a project life-cycle. Some projects, especially subprojects, may have only a single phase.

Plan for project evaluation should be integrated with the plan for the project.

Prioritisation may be based on probability of occurrence, impact on the project, impact on the business, frequency of occurrence, or other factors.

Processes and procedures may exist within the organisation or may need to be developed. They may be manual or automated and will normally include at least change control and status reporting. They may also include management plans, work authorisation, project governance, and product acceptance.

Product of the project may be a physical item, a service, or other solution and is the primary output of the project at project completion. It may be a component of a larger project. For example preparing a feasibility study or developing a functional specification may be treated as an independent project.

Project closure can occur before planned completion due to unforeseen factors. Premature closure should be authorised and evaluated to determine implications.

Project success criteria are measures that describe how the project will be evaluated. They may be quantitative or qualitative. They may have been defined previously or developed by the project. They may address both the product of the project and the management of the project.

Purpose. See evaluation purpose.

Reflection includes self-evaluation and consideration of the project manager’s personal contributions to the project.

Relevant stakeholder. See stakeholders.

Requirements. See interests.

Resource requirements may include type, quantity, and timing. They may be determined for the overall project or for individual work-items.

Resources may include people, funding, information, time, facilities, supplies and equipment.

Responses. See risk responses.

Risk analysis techniques may be qualitative or quantitative and should be chosen based on the management complexity of the project.

Risk prioritisation. See prioritisation.

Risk responses may include mitigation, acceptance (no action), transfer, assignment, and contingency planning.

Risk. An uncertain event or condition that if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on the project. Risks may include generic items such as employee turnover or application area specific items such as health, safety, and environmental issues on a construction project.

Roles may encompass responsibilities, accountabilities, authorities, reporting arrangements, and other required aspects of work performance.

Schedule may be developed using durations (work periods) or elapsed time (calendar periods). Schedule detail may vary based on the needs of the project.

Sequence is the logical and practical ordering of work-items.

Stakeholders include those whose interests are affected by the project. This may include team members, clients, sponsors, internal and external parties, decision makers, and others. The appropriate stakeholder may be a client, owner, sponsor, senior executive, or other individual that is vested with the authority to make decisions regarding the project. The relevance of a stakeholder may be affected by the impact of the project on the stakeholder, by the impact of the stakeholder on the project, and by cultural or ethical considerations. Different stakeholders are relevant in different situations. External stakeholders are those outside the project team. They may be internal to or external to the project manager’s organisation. The boundary between the external stakeholders and the project team is often indistinct. Identified stakeholders may include individuals or organisations who are involved in the use of the product of the project such as clients, customers, business owners, and technology owners.

Start-up activities may be planned separately or may be included in the plan for the project.

Transition activities may include stakeholder meetings, document reviews, or product and project reviews.

Variances, within the context of managing product acceptance, are differences from the agreed product characteristics and include changes that have not been approved. Product characteristics may be specified in project documentation, quality guidelines, or other documents and may be absolutes or may have tolerances. Variances that are within tolerances may be ignored. Variances, within the context of managing project progress, may include errors in design or use of processes and procedures. Variances, within the context of managing stakeholder communications, may include missing reports, incorrect or misleading content, and late distribution. Communications that fail to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs may also be considered variances. Variances, within the context of managing external stakeholder participation, may include non-participation, unsolicited or unplanned participation, and other unexpected activities. Minor variances may not require corrective action.

Wants. See interests.

Work-item. A segment of the overall work of the project. Work-items may be called work packages, deliverables, outputs, cost accounts, activities, or tasks. They may be represented in an ordered or unordered list, or graphically through a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or similar display.

 

 

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Copyright Notice

Copyright Notice

 

Copyright (c) 2005-2007

Global Alliance for Project Performance Standards (GAPPS)

 

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this document to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, translate, and/or sublicense copies of the document, and to permit persons to whom the document is furnished to do so as well, subject to the following conditions:

  • The above copyright notice and a full copy of this permission notice shall be included in all complete copies of this document and in any document that uses substantial portions of this document.
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  • This document should be referenced as

GAPPS (2007) A Framework for Performance Based Competency Standards for Global Level 1 and 2 Project Managers Sydney: Global Alliance for Project Performance Standards

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3. Role Descriptions for Project Managers

  1. Role Descriptions for Project Managers

The term project has been defined in many different ways. For example:

  • “A time and cost restrained operation to realise a set of defined deliverables (the scope to fulfil the project’s objectives) up to quality standards and requirements.” (International Project Management Association)
  • “A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service.” (Project Management Institute, Inc., USA)

Despite the differences in phrasing, these definitions, like most other definitions of project, are conceptually equivalent. Whatever the words used, however, it is clear that a project can be small or large, short or long. A project could be:

  • The development of a new power plant from feasibility and design through construction and commissioning
  • The preparation of the feasibility study alone
  • The construction activities alone
  • The creation of a research report for a consumer products company
  • The implementation of a new information technology system

 

In some organisations, project manager is a position with that title, while in others, it is a temporary assignment. Whether a position or an assignment, whenever a single individual is clearly responsible for the management of a project, that individual can be considered to be a project manager for the purposes of this framework.

 

In the context of the GAPPS framework, being responsible for the management of the project includes being responsible for the relevant aspects of leadership as well. For example, project managers may need to align, motivate, and inspire project team members in addition to doing the more routine activities such as planning and reporting.

 

3.1      Differentiating Project Manager Roles

Project managers are expected to produce essentially the same results — outputs and outcomes that are acceptable to relevant stakeholders. However, the context in which these results are produced may differ: some projects are inherently harder to manage than others. A project manager who is competent to manage an easier, less complex project may not be competent to manage a harder, more complex project.

 

GAPPS has developed an approach to categorising projects based on their management complexity. The GAPPS framework uses a tool called the Crawford-Ishikura Factor Table for Evaluating Roles, or CIFTER. The tool, named after two major contributors to GAPPS, is used to differentiate project manager roles based on the complexity of the projects managed.

 

The CIFTER factors identify the causes of project management complexity. For example, in some application areas, a project manager’s ability to control project costs is considered to be the primary factor in determining competence. The CIFTER provides a mechanism for matching competence to need by identifying the factors that affect the project manager’s ability to control costs.

 

The CIFTER identifies seven factors that affect the management complexity of a project. Each factor is rated from 1 to 4 using a qualitative point scale, and the factors are totalled to produce a management complexity rating for the project. The use of the CIFTER is described in more detail in the remainder of this section.

 

3.2      The CIFTER Factors

There are seven CIFTER factors which together define a project’s management complexity. Each of the seven factors is given equal weight when evaluating the management complexity of a project. Since the characteristics of a project may change over time, the CIFTER factors may change over time as well.

  1. Stability of the overall project context. The project context includes the project life-cycle, the stakeholders, the degree to which the applicable methods and approaches are known, and the wider socioeconomic environment. When the project context is unstable — phase deliverables are poorly defined, scope changes are frequent and significant, team members are coming and going, applicable laws and regulations are being modified — the project management challenge increases.

      Note: some aspects of “technical complexity” such as dealing with unproven concepts would be considered here. Uncertainty in the economic or political environment would be considered here.

  1. Number of distinct disciplines, methods, or approaches involved in performing the project. Most projects involve more than one management or technical discipline; some projects involve a large number of different disciplines. For example, a project to develop a new drug could include medical researchers, marketing staff, manufacturing experts, lawyers, and others. Since each discipline tends to approach its part of the project in a different way, more disciplines means a project that is relatively more difficult to manage.

      Note: some aspects of “technical complexity” such as dealing with a product with many interacting elements would be considered here.

  1. Magnitude of legal, social, or environmental implications from performing the project. This factor addresses the potential external impact of the project. For example, the potential for catastrophic failure means that the implications of constructing a nuclear power plant close to a major urban centre will likely be much greater than those of constructing an identical plant in a remote area. The management complexity of the urban project will be higher due to the need to deal with a larger number of stakeholders and a more diverse stakeholder population.

      Note: “external impact” refers to the effect on individuals and organizations outside the performing organization. Financial considerations related to actual or potential legal liability for the performing organization would be considered in factor 4.

  1. Overall expected financial impact (positive or negative) on the project’s stakeholders. This factor accounts for one aspect of the traditional measure of “size,” but does so in relative terms. For example, a project manager in a consumer electronics start-up is subject to more scrutiny than a project manager doing a similarly sized project for a computer manufacturer with operations around the globe, and increased scrutiny generally means more management complexity. A subproject whose output is a necessary component of the parent project would generally receive a rating on this factor close to or equal to that of the parent project.

      Note: where the impact on different stakeholders is different, this factor should be rated according to the impact on the primary stakeholders. Financial considerations related to actual or potential legal liability incurred by the performing organization would be considered here.

  1. Strategic importance of the project to the organisation or organisations involved. This factor addresses yet another aspect of “size,” and again deals with it in relative rather than absolute terms. While every project should be aligned with the organisation’s strategic direction, not every project can be of equal importance to the organisation or organisations involved. A subproject whose output is a necessary component of the parent project would generally receive a rating on this factor close to or equal to that of the parent project.

      Note: as with financial impact, if the strategic importance for different stakeholders is different, this factor should be rated according to the strategic importance for the primary stakeholders.

  1. Stakeholder cohesion regarding the characteristics of the product of the project. When all or most stakeholders are in agreement about the characteristics of the product of the project, they tend to be in agreement about the expected outcomes as well. When they are not in agreement, or when the benefits of a product with a particular set of characteristics are unknown or uncertain, the project management challenge is increased.
  2. Number and variety of interfaces between the project and other organisational entities. In the same way that a large number of different disciplines on a project can create a management challenge, a large number of different organisations can as well.

      Note: issues of culture and language would be addressed here. A large team could have a relatively small number of interfaces if most team member have the same employer. On the other hand, shift work might increase the rating here even though the additional shifts are technically part of the project.

 

3.3      The CIFTER Ratings

Each of the seven factors in the CIFTER has been rated on a point scale of 1 -4 with the total number of points across the seven factors determining whether a project is Global 1, Global 2 or neither.

 

The point ratings for the CIFTER were established in an iterative fashion. An initial set of factors and values were identified, and several projects rated. While the CIFTER development team recognised that most projects could benefit from a higher level of skill, each iteration was assessed as follows:

  • Was a project that rated below Level 1 unlikely to require the skills of a competent Global Level 1 project manager?
  • Was a project that rated at Level 1 likely to require the skills of a competent Global Level 1 project manager?
  • Was a project that rated at Level 2 likely to require the skills of a competent Global Level 2 project manager?

 

Both factors and ratings were adjusted until the results met the criteria above. With the final set of seven factors and a point scale of 1 to 4, the following ranges were set:

  • 11 points or less: this project cannot be used to provide evidence for a GAPPS compliant performance assessment.
  • 12 points or more: this project can be used to provide evidence for a GAPPS compliant performance assessment at Global Level 1.
  • 19 points or more: this project can be used to provide evidence for a GAPPS compliant performance assessment at Global Level 2.

 

The project being rated should be defined in terms of the responsibilities of the project manager. For example, on a construction project:

  • The owner’s project manager may have an unstable project context while the contractor’s project manager has a stable one.
  • The financial impact on the owner’s organisation could be slight while the impact on the contractor’s organisation could be huge.

Crawford-Ishikura Factor Table for Evaluating Roles (CIFTER)

 

Project Management
Complexity Factor
Descriptor and Points
1.     Stability of the overall project context Very high

(1)

High

(2)

Moderate

(3)

Low or very low

(4)

2.     Number of distinct disciplines, methods, or approaches involved in performing the project Low or very low

(1)

Moderate

(2)

High

(3)

Very high

(4)

3.     Magnitude of legal, social, or environmental implications from performing the project Low or very low

(1)

Moderate

(2)

High

(3)

Very high

(4)

4.     Overall expected financial impact (positive or negative) on the project’s stakeholders Low or very low

(1)

Moderate

(2)

High

(3)

Very high

(4)

5.     Strategic importance of the project to the organisation or organisations involved Very low

(1)

Low

(2)

Moderate

(3)

High or very high

(4)

6.     Stakeholder cohesion regarding the characteristics of the product of the project High or very high

(1)

Moderate

(2)

Low

(3)

Very low

(4)

7.     Number and variety of interfaces between the project and other organisational entities Very low

(1)

Low

(2)

Moderate

(3)

High or very high

(4)

 

In order to illustrate the use of the CIFTER, nine sample projects from three different application areas were selected and rated:

  1. Social/public services project: develop a three-hour employee orientation program for a municipal department.
  2. Social/public services project: develop and implement an in-house training program on a new, computerised point-of-sale system for the automobile driver licensing unit of a state or province.
  3. Social/public services project: develop and implement a new science curriculum for the final, pre-university year in all schools in a state or province.
  4. Information Technology project: implement a software package upgrade in a single business functional area.
  5. Information Technology project: design a new corporate website for a multi-national manufacturing company.
  6. Information Technology project: implement an Enterprise Resource Planning application across business areas in an environment where the success or failure of the implementation has significant legal implications.
  7. Engineering and Construction project: construction management for a small addition to a local school done mostly during summer vacation.
  8. Engineering and Construction project: construction management of the renovation of a small, suburban office building.
  9. Engineering and Construction project: construction management of the renovation of a 30 storey hotel for an international hotel chain.

 

As illustrated in the table below, Projects A, D, and G could not be used to provide evidence of competency in a GAPPS compliant assessment. Projects B, C, E, F, H, and I could all be used to provide evidence for a Global Level 1 assessment. Projects C, F, and I could all be used to provide evidence for a Global Level 2 assessment. Appendix E contains more detail about the CIFTER sample ratings.

  Project Management Complexity Factor  
Sample Project 1. Stability 2. No. of Methods 3. Implications 4. Financial Impact 5. Strategic Importance 6. Stakeholder Cohesion 7. Project Interfaces Total Score
A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
B 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 15
C 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 20
D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
E 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 13
F 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 22
G 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 9
H 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 13
I 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.4      Limitations of the CIFTER

The CIFTER does not accommodate individuals managing multiple projects since ratings for multiple projects cannot be summed. However, an assessment process could allow evidence from more than one project as long as each individual project meets the requirements for the level being assessed.

 

In some application areas, multiple project managers may share overall responsibility for the project. These projects cannot be used for assessment since it would not be clear which project manager was responsible for which results.

 

Ratings on individual factors will often vary for the same project. For example, one person might consider the stability of the overall project context to be “high” while another views it as “moderate.” However, experience has shown that such differences balance out and that the project totals are quite consistent.

 

3.5      The CIFTER and Career Development

Although the primary purpose of the CIFTER is to differentiate levels of management complexity in order to define project manager roles for assessment, it can also be used to guide career development. For example, a Global Level 1 project manager might seek opportunities to manage projects with higher scores on certain factors in order to move toward Global Level 2 assessment.

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