Appendix A

Appendix A

Range Statements



This appendix includes all of the Range Statements from the Units of Competency. It does not include other project management terms, nor does it include performance based competency terms. Where the Range Statements contain lists, the lists are generally illustrative and not exhaustive.

Accepted. The product of the project or the outputs of a prior phase may be accepted with uncorrected variances.

Actions in the context of managing stakeholder relationships may include problem solving, negotiating, accommodating, compromising, collaborating, or cooperating. Actions in the context of managing project progress may include risk responses, corrective measures, and documented exemptions handled outside of the agreed change control processes.

Addressed includes acceptance as is, acceptance with modification, or rejection. Interests, needs, and opportunities may be addressed without being satisfied. Conflicts and variances may be addressed without being eliminated.

Appropriate stakeholders. See stakeholders.

Approval is provided with the expectation that the plan for the project will be updated as the project progresses.

Baselines are the agreed to reference points for measuring performance and progress of the project. Baselines must include a budget and a schedule and may also include scope, work, resources, revenue, cash flow, communication, quality, risk, or other aspects of the project.

Behavioural expectations may include responding to conflict; dealing with differences in skill, background, culture, or other personal characteristics of individuals involved with the project; and may be influenced by the phase of the project life-cycle.

Budgets may be expressed in monetary or other units. Budget detail may vary based on the needs of the project, funds availability, and accounting rules.

Change control processes are used to capture, assess, approve or reject, track, and implement changes to the product of the project. They may be developed as part of the project or may be provided by the project’s parent organisation.

Characteristics of the product of the project may include physical dimensions, quality requirements, or other factors that may affect the use of the product of the project. Desired characteristics may include characteristics that will not be included in the completed product of the project.

Closure activities may include acceptance testing, finalising accounts and contracts, releasing project resources, informing stakeholders, celebrating closure, documenting and communicating knowledge, and capturing lessons learned.

Communication needs may include content required, method used (e.g., electronic, phone, meeting), geographical dispersion, protocols, cultural differences, and confidentiality requirements. They may be documented formally or informally and may be included in other project documentation.

Completion criteria may be identified in the plan for the project or may be contained in descriptions of the product of the project such as specifications; user requirements; quality requirements; health, safety, environment, and community requirements; or other application area specific documents.

Consideration of interests should be done in an ethical manner.

Corrective action may include steps taken to prevent future problems, problem solving, communication, conflict resolution, decision making, preparation of change requests, and implementing risk responses. Where the project manager’s authority is limited, corrective action may also include requests for action directed to the responsible parties.

Desired characteristics. See characteristics.

Determination of evaluation techniques may consider multiple viewpoints and perspectives, cause and effect relationships, validity, sufficiency, reliability, fairness, relevance to project type and context, impact on the project, cost/benefit of the evaluation process, and the use of subject matter experts in the design or conduct of the evaluation process.

Ensuring may include performing, supervising, or directing.

Evaluation may rely on information gained from trend analysis, forecasting, strategic alignment reviews, and reading the internal and external environments.

Evaluation purpose may include who the evaluation is for, what is being evaluated, and what use is to be made of the evaluation. The purpose may be for improvement of current or future projects; for evaluation of project management success, product success, individual or team performance, or organisational capability; or for driving particular aspects of performance.

Evaluation techniques should relate to purpose and may be formative (during the project), summative (at the close of the project), and qualitative or quantitative.

Exclusions are potential work-items, or the results of work-items, that might reasonably be expected by a stakeholder but which will not be included in the work of this project.

External environment may include the organisation in which the project is conducted, inter-project dependencies, technological advances, and legal, social, economic, environmental or political changes. The significance of the external factors will vary in relation to the nature of the project.

Expectations. See interests.

External stakeholders. See stakeholders.

Feedback may be positive or negative and may include follow up activities.

Identified stakeholders See stakeholders.

Improvements may include changes to project management processes and procedures as well as to the product of the project.

Individual development involves enhancing individual skills. Needs are for skills directly related to the work of the project. Opportunities are for skills that benefit the individual or the organisation. Development may be provided in formal or informal contexts.

Interests may include needs, wants, expectations, or requirements. Interests may be stated or implied. Interests may be related to the product of the project or to how the activities of the project are conducted.

Interpersonal skills may include leadership skills, verbal and non-verbal communication skills, decision making, dealing with emotions and stress, conflict management, trust building, negotiating, demonstrating sensitivity to diversity issues, and modelling desired behaviour. The application of interpersonal skills may be influenced by the phase of the project life-cycle.

Knowledge includes information gained and lessons learned from other projects.

Legal requirements may include legislation and regulations; authority approvals; contract and sub-contract provisions; operational health and safety; discrimination; industrial relations; fair trade; internal business controls; and environmental issues. Contractual provisions may need to be addressed from both the buyer’s and the seller’s perspectives.

Lessons learned may apply to a single phase, to the entire project, or to future projects, and may include organisational issues.

Measurement may include feedback obtained from stakeholders, variances from plan, changes in stakeholder interests, and changes in assumptions and constraints.

Monitoring in the project context will generally require paying special attention to potential causes or sources of interpersonal conflict.

Needs. See interests for stakeholder needs. See individual development for development needs.

Opportunities. See individual development.

Outcomes are the result of the delivery of the project outputs and may occur after the project is complete.

Participation may include correspondence, attendance at meetings, or review of documentation.

Performance data may include measures collected and analysed during the project and lessons learned captured during the project.

Phases may also be called stages or iterations. A series of project phases may be called a project life-cycle. Some projects, especially subprojects, may have only a single phase.

Plan for project evaluation should be integrated with the plan for the project.

Prioritisation may be based on probability of occurrence, impact on the project, impact on the business, frequency of occurrence, or other factors.

Processes and procedures may exist within the organisation or may need to be developed. They may be manual or automated and will normally include at least change control and status reporting. They may also include management plans, work authorisation, project governance, and product acceptance.

Product of the project may be a physical item, a service, or other solution and is the primary output of the project at project completion. It may be a component of a larger project. For example preparing a feasibility study or developing a functional specification may be treated as an independent project.

Project closure can occur before planned completion due to unforeseen factors. Premature closure should be authorised and evaluated to determine implications.

Project success criteria are measures that describe how the project will be evaluated. They may be quantitative or qualitative. They may have been defined previously or developed by the project. They may address both the product of the project and the management of the project.

Purpose. See evaluation purpose.

Reflection includes self-evaluation and consideration of the project manager’s personal contributions to the project.

Relevant stakeholder. See stakeholders.

Requirements. See interests.

Resource requirements may include type, quantity, and timing. They may be determined for the overall project or for individual work-items.

Resources may include people, funding, information, time, facilities, supplies and equipment.

Responses. See risk responses.

Risk analysis techniques may be qualitative or quantitative and should be chosen based on the management complexity of the project.

Risk prioritisation. See prioritisation.

Risk responses may include mitigation, acceptance (no action), transfer, assignment, and contingency planning.

Risk. An uncertain event or condition that if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on the project. Risks may include generic items such as employee turnover or application area specific items such as health, safety, and environmental issues on a construction project.

Roles may encompass responsibilities, accountabilities, authorities, reporting arrangements, and other required aspects of work performance.

Schedule may be developed using durations (work periods) or elapsed time (calendar periods). Schedule detail may vary based on the needs of the project.

Sequence is the logical and practical ordering of work-items.

Stakeholders include those whose interests are affected by the project. This may include team members, clients, sponsors, internal and external parties, decision makers, and others. The appropriate stakeholder may be a client, owner, sponsor, senior executive, or other individual that is vested with the authority to make decisions regarding the project. The relevance of a stakeholder may be affected by the impact of the project on the stakeholder, by the impact of the stakeholder on the project, and by cultural or ethical considerations. Different stakeholders are relevant in different situations. External stakeholders are those outside the project team. They may be internal to or external to the project manager’s organisation. The boundary between the external stakeholders and the project team is often indistinct. Identified stakeholders may include individuals or organisations who are involved in the use of the product of the project such as clients, customers, business owners, and technology owners.

Start-up activities may be planned separately or may be included in the plan for the project.

Transition activities may include stakeholder meetings, document reviews, or product and project reviews.

Variances, within the context of managing product acceptance, are differences from the agreed product characteristics and include changes that have not been approved. Product characteristics may be specified in project documentation, quality guidelines, or other documents and may be absolutes or may have tolerances. Variances that are within tolerances may be ignored. Variances, within the context of managing project progress, may include errors in design or use of processes and procedures. Variances, within the context of managing stakeholder communications, may include missing reports, incorrect or misleading content, and late distribution. Communications that fail to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs may also be considered variances. Variances, within the context of managing external stakeholder participation, may include non-participation, unsolicited or unplanned participation, and other unexpected activities. Minor variances may not require corrective action.

Wants. See interests.

Work-item. A segment of the overall work of the project. Work-items may be called work packages, deliverables, outputs, cost accounts, activities, or tasks. They may be represented in an ordered or unordered list, or graphically through a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) or similar display.