Appendix A

Record of contributors to the performance based framework for Project Controls

NAME REPRESENTING COUNTRY
Adamopoulos, Pierre Heriot Watt University UK
Aitken, Alicia PPG / Telstra Australia
Al-Qahtani, Ali S Ma’aden Aluminium Company Saudi Arabia
Al-Shammary, Sami Ma’aden Aluminium Company Saudi Arabia
Andrew Gale University of Manchester UK
Andrew Tims Major Projects Authority, UK UK
Angelilo, Stephen NASA USA
Baker, Chris NAB Australia
Baker, Rod APMG UK
Bibby, Jon Costain UK
Ben Aiben, Saad Ma’aden Aluminium Company Saudi Arabia
Bentley, Lesley Living Planit Australia
Best, Robert Services SETA South Africa
Billat, Pensilla Sasol Ltd South Africa
Botes, Melani SOLAL South Africa
Buhagiar, Michael Sydney University Australia
Callaway, Amy TBH Group Australia
Chen, Helen Centre for Public Project Management Singapore
Chung, Ken Sydney University Australia
Coleman, Sarah APM UK
Crawford, Lynn Bond University Australia
Darley, Martin AACEI USA
David Preece APM UK
Duncan, Bill asapm USA
Edwards, Andrew State Emergency Services/NSW Fire & Rescue Australia
Egbu, Charles Doctoral student, London Southbank University, LSBU UK
Eltinayn, Nuha Doctoral student, London Southbank University, LSBU UK
Ferrabone, Galileo Sasol South Africa
Fitzgerald, Donna asapm USA
Floris, Maurizio JGCPL, Sydney University Australia
Forth, Shane Costain UK
Framp, Melody Human Systems Asia Pacific Australia
Gardiner, Paul BUiD UAE
Gaspar, Josephine Snowdon Group Australia
George, Stella Athabasca University Canada
Giammalvo, Paul PTMC Indonesia
Graham, Robert Heriot Watt University UK
Gray Garraway, Isabelle Department of Premier and Cabinet Australia
Haddad, Rania Caparol Paints Dubai
Haggerty, Patrick AACEI USA
Hancock, Gill APM UK
Haniff, Amos Heriot Watt University UK
Heymans, Christa Sasol Ltd South Africa
Ho, Bernard SPM Singapore
Hoffman, Ed NASA USA
Kaesler, Shane BAE Systems Australia Australia
Kananu, Rose Sasol South Africa
Keeys, Lynn Independent consultant South Africa
Kirkham Richard University of Manchester UK
Knoepfel, Hans IPMA Switzerland
Khorsand Moadab Mohsen University of Manchester UK
Kruger, J C Greybeards South Africa
Lai, Ruby SPM Singapore
Langston, Craig Bond University Australia
Liu, Lucia Lend Lease Australia
Magee, Kevin NASA USA
Manton-Hall, Patricia Independent Consultant (formerly Bechtel) Australia
Maria Doufa University of Manchester UK
Mavuso, Johannes Sasol Ltd South Africa
Milsom, Peter APMG Canada
Morar, Sunil Sasol Ltd South Africa
Morgan, David BG Group UK
Myezo, Mpho Petro SA South Africa
Nalewaik, Alexia AACEI USA
Noble, Will Human Systems Asia Pacific Australia
Omokhomion , Itua London Southbank University UK
Peh, Luke SPM Singapore
Petit, Ivan UQAM Canada
Petro, Yacoub MHW, Stantec Dubai
Piesker, Julia Heriot Watt University UK
Preece, David APM UK
Pretorius, Carl Sasol Ltd South Africa
Radyati, Maria Independent consultant South Africa
Reay Atkinson, Simon Sydney University Australia
Reinhard Wagner IPMA Germany
Rider, Lesley Services SETA / PMSA South Africa
Rodrigues, Chantal Services SETA South Africa
Ruiz, Natalie Heriot Watt University UK
Rutherford Jones, John Sasol Ltd South Africa
Sakhaee, Ehssan Sydney University Australia
Sargent, Roy Building and Asset Services Australia
Schaden, Brigitte IPMA Austria
Schmemr, Werner IPMA Germany
Sedlmayer, Martin IPMA Switzerland
Seng King, Ting SPM Singapore
Simmonds, Tony Interlink Technologies Australia
Sompie, Meiske TBH Group Australia
Tharakan Mulackal, Philips AACEI Dubai
Thomas, Janice Athabasca University Canada
Tillin, Adrian QGC / BG Group Australia
Van Waveren, Beno Sasol Ltd South Africa
Veloz, Carolina UTS Australia
Voolhofer, Alexander Projekt Management Austria Austria
Wallace, Yvonne Living Planit Australia
Wilson, Liz APM UK
Witte, Rob Worley Parsons South Africa
Ying Chang University of Manchester UK
Yip, Kim Seng SPM Singapore
Yuen, Mun Wye SPM Singapore
Ziying Liang University of Manchester UK

Categories:

2. Project Controls: Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria

2.1 Overview of Performance Based Competence Standards

This section provides a brief overview of the subject of performance based competency standards (PBCS) for potential users of this document who are not familiar with the topic.

Competentcomes from the Latin root competerewhich means “to be suitable.” In today’s workplace, the term “competent” is generally used to describe someone who is sufficiently skilled to perform a specified task or to fill a defined position — a competent physician, a competent salesperson, a competent plumber. Increasingly, organisations are interested in assessing the competency of individuals in order to guide employment and development decisions.

Broadly speaking, there are two major approaches to defining and assessing competency:

  • Attribute basedwherein personal attributes such as knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and other characteristics are identified and assessed. Competency is inferred based on the presence of the necessary attributes.
  • Performance basedwherein work outcomes and performance levels are identified and assessed. Competency is inferred based on the demonstrated ability to satisfy the performance criteria.

PBCS, also called occupational competency standards, are widely used throughout the world and have been developed within the context of government endorsed standards and qualifications frameworks in Australia (Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations: DEEWR), New Zealand (New Zealand Qualifications Authority: NZQA), South Africa (South African Qualifications Authority: SAQA), and the United Kingdom (Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency: QCDA). Although all of these approaches are focused primarily on performance basedcompetency assessment, some approaches do include aspects of attribute basedcompetency assessment.

 

2.2 Design of the GAPPS Framework

PBCS typically address at least the following two questions:

  • What is usuallydone in this occupation, profession, or role by competent performers?
  • What standard of performance is usuallyconsidered acceptable to infer competency?

In the GAPPS standards, these questions are answered by defining:

  • Units of Competency

A Unit of Competency defines a broad area of professional or occupational performance that is meaningful to practitioners and which is demonstrated by individuals in the workplace. This GAPPS framework includes 6 Units of Competency.

  • Elements of Competency

Elements of Competency describe the key components of work performance within a Unit. They describe whatis done by individuals in the workplace but do not prescribe howthe work is done. For example, project sponsors must “cultivate stakeholder commitment,” but they can do this using approaches and tools of their own choice. This GAPPS framework includes a total of 24 Elements of Competency.

  • Performance Criteria

Performance Criteria set out the type and/or level of performance required to demonstrate competency in each element. They describe observable results and/or actions in the workplace from which competent performance can be inferred. In the GAPPS framework, Performance Criteria can be satisfied in many different ways; there are no mandatory approaches, tools, or methodologies. This GAPPS framework includes a total of 79 Performance Criteria.

  • Explanatory Statements

Explanatory Statements help to ensure consistent interpretation of the Elements and the Performance Criteria by expanding on critical or significant aspects of them to enable consistent application in different contexts. They also may include a description of a range that may apply to the context of the experience. Where the Explanatory Statements contain lists, the lists are generally illustrative and not exhaustive.

Although some of the terms and definitions of the GAPPS framework described above differ in some respects from other PBCS, the overall approach is consistent and compatible with generally accepted practice within the field of competency development and assessment.

The Performance Criteria in this document focus on thresholdperformance — demonstration of the ability to do something at a standard considered acceptable in the workplace. They do not measure superiorperformance — what the best project controllers do. Superior performers should be able to satisfy the threshold criteria without difficulty.

The GAPPS standards include the minimum number of Performance Criteria needed to infer competency. As a result, a candidate must satisfy all of the Performance Criteria in the applicable Units in order to be viewed as competent. In addition, the Performance Criteria represent different levels of effort. The number of Performance Criteria in a Unit or Element is not proportional to the amount of time or effort that an individual must spend in that area to be viewed as competent.

The material in this document can also be used to support learning and development when applied by qualified educators and trainers. In order to provide such support, the GAPPS Framework would need to be expanded to address questions such as:

  • What skills and knowledge are needed to demonstrate this standard of performance?
  • What are the parameters for collecting evidence and assessing performance?

 

2.3 Details of Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria

The following pages detail the Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria of this framework. They are presented using the format illustrated below in Figure 2.

PC0X                Unit Title
Unit Descriptor       A Unit of Competency defines a broad area of professional or occupational performance that is meaningful to practitioners and which is demonstrated by individuals in the workplace.

This GAPPS framework includes six Units of Competency.

PC0X     List of Elements
X.1    Elements of Competency describe the key components of work performance within a Unit.

X.2    They describe what is done by individuals in the workplace but do not prescribe how the work is done.

X.3    This GAPPS framework includes a total of 24 Elements of Competency.

PC0X     Element Y
X.Y    Element description is repeated here.
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
X.Y.1 Performance criteria set out the type and/or level of performance required to demonstrate competency in each element.

X.Y.2 Performance criteriadescribe observable results and/or actions in the workplace from which competent performance can be inferred.

X.Y.3 Performance criteria are written using the passive voice to facilitate evaluation of evidence during assessment.

X.Y.4 This GAPPS framework includes 79 Performance Criteria.

a.   Explanatory statements are provided for key words and phrases in the element descriptions or the performance criteria.

b.   Explanatory statements may provide clarification and a general guide for the scope and context in which an individual is expected to perform by describing a range of situations or conditions that may apply

c.   The explanatory statements provide guidance for both Assessors and for the individuals being assessed.

c.   Explanatory statements are provided the first time each term is used in a unit. Although additional explanations may be included if required to clarify the context of a criteria

Figure 2. Illustration of presentation format for Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria

 

2.4 Summary of Unit Titles and their Elements

Units Elements
PC01.  Appreciate the context for project control 1.1 Understand project control requirements
1.2 Work within governance framework
PC02. Develop control processes 2.1 Establish monitoring processes
2.2 Develop coding structures
2.3 Utilize information management systems
2.4 Apply measurement approaches
PC03. Support development of integrated baseline 3.1 Facilitate refinement ofproject deliverables and requirements
3.2 Define executable packages of work
3.3 Establish the baseline
3.4 Communicate with other functions
3.5 Support validation of the baseline
PC04. Implement control framework 4.1 Apply project control processes
4.2 Ensure information quality
4.3 Analyse comparative data
4.4 Implement agreed reporting structures
4.5 Recommend corrective action
4.6 Support implementation of corrective actions
PC05. Exercise professional and social responsibility 5.1Observe and apply professional ethics and values
5.2 Maintain effective working relationships
5.3 Ensure continued personal and professional performance
PC06. Manage the control team

(optional for Project Controller)

6.1 Allocate work to the team
6.2 Agree objectives with team and individuals
6.3 Develop the skills of team members
6.4 Build an environment of confidence and trust within the control team

Figure 3. Summary of Unit Titles and Elements

2.5 Details of Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria

The following pages detail the Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria of this framework.

PC01                       Appreciate the context for project control
Unit Descriptor This Unit defines the Elements required to demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the requirements for project controls.

It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in how the project controls work, within an organisation/project and within a governance framework.     

PC01         List of Elements
1.1    Understand project control requirements

1.2    Work within governance framework.

PC01         Element 1
1.1    Understand project control requirements
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
1.1.1  Project and project control objectives are understood.

1.1.2  Established budget for projectcontrol function is confirmed

1.1.3  Understanding of project control organization structure is demonstrated.

1.1.4  Limits of personal expertise are acknowledged.

1.1.5  Roles and responsibilities are confirmed.

1.1.6  Operating processes and procedures are identified.

1.1.7  Control requirements of relevant stakeholders are understood.

Appreciate should be interpreted and applied relative to the context within which the person is operating.

Budget may be in terms of time, cost and/or resources.  Note that this is the budget for the control function for the project.  The budget may be provided or may be negotiated by the Project Controls Manager.

Project control organization structures will vary according to project type, size and complexity. Controls include a wide range of specializations.

Acknowledgement ofpersonal expertise is an important element in determining additional controls assistance and expertise that may be required.

Roles and responsibilities will include reporting relationships and authority levels.

Confirmed may include negotiation to deal with variations in expertise.

Operating processes and procedures are those relevant to the project and the controls function.  They may be those of the parent organization, joint venture or alliance partners, contractors and any other relevant parties.

Control requirementsmay include interpretation and treatment of baselines and change requests.

Stakeholders include individuals and organisations whose interests may be affected by the project, or whose actions may have an effect on some aspect of the project. Stakeholders may include project proponents, sponsors, clients, customers, contractors, collaborators, contributors, champions, constituent project managers, project team members, project support staff, subcontractors, suppliers, media representatives, and the general public. Stakeholders may be internal to or external from the sponsoring organisation.

The relevance of a stakeholder may be affected by the impact on the stakeholder, or by the stakeholder’s impact on the project, and by cultural or ethical considerations. Different stakeholders are relevant in different situations. Relevant stakeholders will include contractors and the control requirement including process and submissions required from them.

PC01         Element 2
1.2    Work within governance framework
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
1.2.1   Alignment of reporting structures with organisational and project strategy is maintained.

1.2.2   Informationrequired to control the project is defined, agreed and reviewed

1.2.3  Prescribed Signing and approval authorities are fully understood and applied. Approval processes and authorities are confirmed and applied.

Governance framework refers to the corporate and project governance frameworks within which the project will be conducted.

Control requirementsinclude approval, monitoring and reporting processes and may include or be affected by level of project complexity, form of contract, commercial and regulatory requirements etc.  They may include tolerances, measures etc.

Breadth and depth ofinformationgathered should be limited to the minimum required to satisfy stakeholder control requirements.  Information requirements should bereviewed at key stages of the project life cycle to ensure they remain fit for purpose

 

PC02                       Develop control processes
Unit Descriptor       This Unit defines the Elements required to develop project control processes.

It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in how to establish monitoring processes, develop coding structures, utilize information management systems and apply measurement approaches.     

PC02         List of Elements
2.1    Establish monitoring processes

2.2    Develop coding structures

2.3    Utilize information management systems

2.4    Apply measurement approaches

PC02         Element 1
2.1    Establish monitoring processes
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
2.1.1  Criteria for acceptable performanceare established and agreed.

2.1.2  Report content, formats and frequencies are determined.

2.1.3  Sources of data are identified.

2.1.4  Responsibilities for information provision, monitoring and controlare defined and accepted.

Criteria for acceptable performance may include tolerances e.g. 5% above or below budget or schedule; triggers for unacceptable performance, escalation, key performance indicators (KPI) and the like.

Sources of datashould be transparent and traceable.  They may include any of the parties involved in the project such as project team / functions principal sub-contractors and supply chain, customer, and any data systems used by these parties.

Regular and other meetings required for information provision, monitoring and control such as board meetings should be scheduled and included in the communication plan in order to coordinate and facilitate the flow of information.  The Project Manager should include this in the communication plan.

PC02         Element 2
2.2    Develop coding structures
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
2.2.1  Coding structuresare selected to facilitate measurement and reporting requirements.

2.2.2  Compatibility with organizational accounting and data reporting requirementsis maintained.

Coding structures are a means of integrating elements of project control, reporting and accounting particularly for use with information management systems. They may be provided or required by the client, based on organizational processes, industry or ISO standards, determined by the information management system to be used, or developed specifically for the project.  They may be a combination of the above.
PC02         Element3
2.3    Utilize information management systems
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
2.3.1  Information management systems are selected or adapted to suit the specific requirements of the project.

2.3.2  A data repository is established.

2.3.3  Agreed data integrity and security principles are applied.

 Information management systemsshould be used effectively for sharing of information and integrated reporting.

 

PC02         Element 4
2.4    Apply measurement approaches
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
2.4.1  Performance measures to be used are determined and agreed byrelevant stakeholders.

2.4.2  Compliance withapplicable industry standards is ensured.

2.4.3  Measurement criteria are established.

 

Performance measures will be appropriate to the size and complexity of the project and may include staff turnover, rates of production, number of rejects, number of change requests, rate of work performance or output compared to expectations, safety performance, labour productivity. Earned Value measures of SPI and CPI are examples of performance measures.

Stakeholdersinclude individuals and organisations whose interests may be affected by the project, or whose actions may have an effect on some aspect of the project. Stakeholders may include project proponents, sponsors, clients, customers, contractors, collaborators, contributors, champions, constituent project managers, project team members, project support staff, subcontractors, suppliers, media representatives, and the general public. Stakeholders may be internal to or external from the sponsoring organisation.

The relevanceof a stakeholder may be affected by the impact on the stakeholder, or by the stakeholder’s impact on the project, and by cultural or ethical considerations. Different stakeholders are relevant in different situations.

Applicable industry standards include local and national regulations.  The same information may need to be provided in different ways to satisfy different requirements.

Measurement criteria would be developed as a basis for monitoring. They would be specific to each project. They may include quality, efficiency, stakeholder expectations and acceptance criteria. This may be an iterative process to ensure satisfaction of all relevant parties

 

PC03                       Support development of integrated baseline
Unit Descriptor       This Unit defines the Elements required to support the development of an integrated baseline for a project.

It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in defining packages of work, establishing, validating and integrating baselines and communicating with other functions.

In the context of project controls, a baseline is an approved start point used

as a basis for performance measurement

PC03         List of Elements
3.1    Facilitate refinement of project deliverables and requirements

3.2    Define executable packages of work

3.3    Establish the baseline

3.4    Communicate with other functions

3.5    Support validation of the baseline

PC03         Element 1
3.1    Facilitate refinement of project deliverables and requirements
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
3.1.1  Detail of deliverables and requirements for the overall project or phaseare verified.

3.1.2  Assumptions and constraints are documented.

 

 

 

Integrated baseline may also be referred to as the project plan. Items in Integrated baseline should include audit requirements.

High level deliverables and requirements would be provided by the Project Manager. Input for refinement of deliverables and requirements may be obtained from participating specialists.

Overall project or phase refers to [“overall project or phase” may best be dealt with in an overall statement.]

Assumptions and constraints made in developing baselines must be documented.

 

PC03         Element 2
3.2    Define executable packages of work
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
3.2.1  Detailedbreakdown structures are developed.

3.2.2  Responsibilities for work packagesare identified.

Breakdown structures may include breakdown of project, product, resource, organisation and work breakdown structures, milestone deliverables, work packages and the like.

 

PC03         Element 3
3.3    Establish the baseline
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
3.3.1  Resource requirements are determined

3.3.2  Sources of dataare identified.

3.3.3  Input is sought from other functions.

3.3.4  Scope, cost, schedule, risk and quality baselines are integrated.

 

Baseline in the context of project controls is an approved start point used as a basis for performance measurement.

Resource requirements may include staffing, material, funding, machinery, time, equipment, supplies

Input may include confirmation of resource availability, scope, cost, timing, regulatory, environmental, political, economic, contractual and other implications and do-ability review

Other functions may include design, engineering, procurement, construction, human resources, finance, commercial, operations and the like.

Development of scope, cost, schedule, risk and quality baselines may be the responsibility of separate specialists. Procurement, operational, environmental, communication, resource and other baselines may be included.

PC03         Element 4
3.4    Communicate with other functions
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
3.4.1  Report content, formats and frequencies are determined.

3.4.2  Responsibilities for information provision are defined and accepted.

3.4.3   Baseline information is provided as an input to other functions.

3.4.4  Information on quality and availability of potential resources is provided.

 

As above

PC03         Element 5
3.5    Support validation of the baseline
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
3.5.1  Compliance with applicable standards and regulations is verified.

3.5.2  Alignment with declared strategy is maintained.

3.5.3  Independent expert reviewis sought.

3.5.4   Supporting artefacts are provided

 

Declared strategy is that which has been adopted by the project. It may be specific for the project, an organisation strategy and / or the project control strategy.

 

Independent Expert reviewmay include peer review or be provided by specialists independent from the project, internal or external.

Artefacts may include but is not limited to written, printed or electronic documents, digitised matter, drawings, models, or photographs that provide information or evidence or that serve as an official record.

 

PC04                       Implement control framework
Unit Descriptor       This Unit defines the Elements required to implement the control framework.

It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in how to support the project applying control processes, gathering and analysing data and information, providing reports, recommending corrective actions and supporting the implementation of corrective action.     

PC04         List of Elements
4.1    Apply project control processes

4.2    Ensure information quality

4.3    Analyse comparative data

4.4    Implement agreed reporting structures

4.5    Recommend corrective action

4.6    Support implementation of corrective action

PC04         Element 1
4.1    Apply project control processes
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.1.1  Actual performance data is captured

4.1.2  Impacts of change are analysed.

4.1.3  Approved changes are incorporated into the baseline andrelevantdocuments

 

Impact is the effect of a change on the baseline or project objectives.

Change is a positive or negative deviation from baseline and can be as a result of a scope change, inefficiencies, external influences, safety issues etc.

Approved changesshould only result in a change to the baseline if this is in accordance with the governance framework.  

PC04         Element 2
4.2    Ensure information quality
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.2.1  Ability to obtain information from stakeholders is demonstrated.

4.2.2  Information is questioned for meaning, validity and reliability.

4.2.3  Information is stored, maintained, updated and utilized

Reliability includes backward (accurate) and forward looking (forecast) perspectives. It also includes confidence that information will continue to be provided predictably.

 

PC04         Element 3
4.3    Analyse comparative data
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.3.1  Performance variances are analysed

4.3.2  Performance forecasts are conducted.

Variances may be positive or negative differences from the baseline

 

PC04         Element 4
4.4    Implement agreed reporting structures
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.4.1  Project reports are issued in accordance with the governance and control frameworks.

4.4.2  Applicableregulatory and commercial control requirementsare supported.

4.4.3  Information is collated to validate submissions.

Regulatory requirements will usually be imposed as a result of legislation.  They may be generic or industry specific and will normally vary with jurisdiction.

Commercial control requirements will be defined by the contract or other applicable form of engagement.

Submissionsmay be from contractors, suppliers, vendors, service providers, consultants or to customers, clients or other stakeholders and may include claims, bids / tenders, product reviews, invoices, reports, updated schedules etc.

PC04         Element 5
4.5    Recommend corrective action
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.5.1  Response options are generated.

4.5.2  Viable options are identified.

4.5.3  Selectedresponse options are documented and proposed

 

Corrective actions may relate to variations from baseline or to requirements or opportunities for continuous improvement.

Viability is established by way of expert judgement or a qualitative assessment, or by quantitative analysis.

Response options may include but is not limited to requests for further information / detail, engagement of other experts, coaching and mentoring, updating of systems, re-planning, or stopping depending on the particular challenge. Impact analysis may be undertaken in developing options.

PC04         Element 6
4.6    Support implementation of corrective actions
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
4.6.1  Approvedresponse options are communicated for implementation.

4.6.2  Relevant documents are updated to reflect the impacts of action approved for implementation.

4.6.3  Adjustments to systems, policies, and procedures are documented, proposed, approved by relevant stakeholders and tracked to resolution.

4.6.4  Impacts of implemented corrective actions are monitored, captured and reported.

Contributions are made to corrective actions to address reported variances in project performance.

Adjustmentsmay be highlighted by insights from, for example; reviews, system failures and gaps, benchmarking.

Resolutionmay include updated or changed systems, processes, policies and procedures but may be finalised by non-acceptance.  Where possible official sign-off should be obtained.

Impacts may be positive or negative.

 

PC05                       Exercise professional and social responsibility
Unit Descriptor       This Unit defines the Elements required to maintain effective and professional working relationships.

It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in applying values and ethics in a professional manner, achieving effective working relationships and continuing development of performance.     

PC05         List of Elements
5.1    Observe and apply professional ethics and values

5.2    Maintain effective working relationships

5.3    Ensure continued personal and professional performance

PC05         Element 1
5.1    Observe and apply professional ethics and values
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
5.1.1  Acceptedvalues and ethics are defined and communicated

5.1.2  Behavioursreflect accepted ethics and values

5.1.3  Sensitivity to local cultural values, ethics and practices is demonstrated.

Values and ethicsreferred to here will include industry ethics and those stated at organisational, team, professional and cultural level.

Behaviours may be agreed at organisational, project or team level.

Sensitivity includes accommodation of differing values, ethics and practices of communities, suppliers, workforce, political context and the like.

PC05         Element 2
5.2    Maintain effective working relationships
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
5.2.1  Desired results are achieved through influence and positive behaviour.

5.2.2  The priorities, expectations and needs of colleagues are understood and considered when making decisions and taking actions.

5.2.3  Issues are resolved in a constructive manner.

5.2.4  Communications are conducted in accordance with the approved communication plan.

5.2.5  People are treated with respect.

Constructive mannermay include Conflict resolution techniques such as: Crucial conversations, Negotiation, escalation up the line, dealing with the issue not the person.

Communications may include content required, method used (e.g., electronic, phone, meeting), geographical dispersion, protocols, cultural differences, and confidentiality requirements. They may be documented formally or informally and may be included in other project documentation.

Respect may include consideration of cultural differences, sensitivity of information shared etc.

 

PC05         Element 3
5.3    Ensure continued personal and professional performance
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
5.3.1  Personal development plan is documented, updated and implemented.

5.3.2  Personal performance is evaluated and reviewed against an agreed performance contract

Evaluated may include 360 degree and other approaches and will usually be in accordance with organizational performance evaluation processes.  It should be supported by individual review and reflection on personal performance.

A performance contractis the formal or informal agreement between an individual and their employer concerning expectations of their performance in their role.

 

PC06                       Manage the control team (optional for Project Controller)
Unit Descriptor       This Unit defines the Elements required to manage the project control team.

It is an optional unit as a specialist controls person may not be managing a team. It includes the Performance Criteria required to demonstrate competency in how to allocate work, support and develop the team.     

PC06         List of Elements
6.1    Allocate work to the team

6.2    Agree objectives with team and individuals

6.3    Develop the skills of team members

6.4    Build an environment of confidence and trust within the control team

PC06         Element 1
6.1    Allocate work to the team
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
6.1.1  Roles and responsibilities are clarified, agreed, documented and communicated

6.1.2  Work is assigned and agreed.

Agreed includes documentation of said agreement.

 

PC06         Element 2
6.2    Agree objectives with team and individuals
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
6.2.1  Performance criteria for each team member are clarified, negotiated and agreed.

6.2.2  Team objectives are mutually developed, understood and agreed.

6.2.3  Individual and team performance is monitored and feedback provided.

Team Objectives are aligned to the project objectives

 

PC06         Element 3
6.3    Develop the skills of team members
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
6.3.1  Professional development is encouraged and acknowledged.

 

 Professional development may include internal accreditation / internal licence to operate.

 

PC06         Element 4
6.4    Build an environment of confidence and trust within the control team
Performance Criteria Explanatory Statements
6.4.1  Team members are treated fairly and equitably.

6.4.2  Open discussion is encouraged and facilitated

6.4.3  Differences are managed constructively.

6.4.4  Issues and concerns are attended to in a timely manner.

6.4.5  Interpersonal and leadership styles are chosen and applied based on the circumstances.

6.4.6  Personal commitments are realistic and honoured.

6.4.7  An independent and objective perspective is maintained.

 

 

Figure 4. Detail of Units, Elements, and Performance Criteria

Categories:

1. Process and Scope

Work on performance or competency based standards for a ‘Project Controls’ job family began in October 2011 at GAPPS Thought Leadership Forum No 23 hosted by the BG Group/QGC in Brisbane.  The starting point was a review of existing standards for Project Controls in various forms, initially drawing on the following resources:

  • ProVoc[1]/ ACostE Project Control Qualifications
  • National Occupational Standards for Project Control – UK NVQ 2004
  • Total Cost Management Framework – First Edition, 2006, AACE International
  • South African Qualification Authority standards for project controls
  • APM Introduction to Project Control
  • Competency Standards for Quantity Surveyors, Asia Pacific Region, 2001

It is noted that a number of these resources have since been updated.

Review and comparison of these documents provided a picture of coverage of roles in project controls and formed the basis for input and development over subsequent GAPPS Thought Leadership Forums. Globally representative and experienced project management and project controls professionals (see Appendix A) were asked to focus on what practitioners are required to do when providing project control services and oversight for projects.  At each of the sessions where project controls were addressed the work of previous groups was reviewed and progressed in an ongoing validation process. In 2017 a review of the document was undertaken by several experienced practitioners and their comments addressed during 2018 GAPPS Thought Leadership Forums.

Accepted practice in development of performance based competency standards[2]is to seek input from practitioners on what is considered to be minimum acceptable performance in a particular role. Therefore, the process should start with a definition of the role. This proved to be extremely difficult in the area of project controls where it was agreed that roles are both broad and deep. The roles extend from entry level project support roles to very senior Project Controls Director roles which may be at Board level. Project Controls are also provided by specialist consulting firms and include a wide range of specialist areas including cost, scheduling, risk, quality, estimation, quantity and document control.

Work to date has focused on developing an understanding of a core set of performance based competencies expected of a Project Controller or Project Controls Manager.   This was intended to provide a shared understanding of the ‘job family’ and a basis for further attempts at actually defining the roles.  Once the roles were defined, then it would be possible to return to development of the performance based standards for each role.

At GAPPS Thought Leadership Forum No 38 in London, the core set of performance based competencies were agreed in the draft form provided in this document.  Further work is required but it was considered an adequate basis for thinking about role definition.

A Project Controls Role Definition is provided in Section 1.2 and it is intended that this will be provided in a Wiki via the GAPPS website to enable ongoing development between GAPPS sessions.

[1]ProVoc is the UK National steering Committee raising the profile of Professional level National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) for Project Management and Project Control staff in industry and commerce.

 

[2]Heywood, L., Gonczi, A., & Hager, P. (1992). A Guide to Development of Competency Standards for Professions. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

1.1 Role Context

The role of theproject controls managerin this context may be for single or multiple projects. The role of project controls manageris generally to support the project manager(s) to achieve project objectives by establishing the baseline plan, confirming the control basis, metrics and assumptions, identifying deviations and recommending corrective actions.

In some organizations theproject controls manageris a position with that title, while in others, it may be termed differently. This may be a position or an assignment. Whenever a single individual is clearly responsible for providing project controls support to the project manager, that individual can be considered to be a project controls manager for the purposes of this framework.

Incidental notes:

  • Activities referred to in the standard may be undertaken by the Project Controls Manager or by a member of their team or other specialist.
  • Every decision must support business value.
  • The project controls manager is the navigator.Project Manager is the pilot.
  • Project controls have a key role of providing reliable information in a timely manner to enable decision makers to make informed decisions.

 

1.2 Role Definitions for Project Controls

Level At this level you would typically be responsible for: Desirable attributes would include:
Strategic In line with the organisational risk appetite:

  • setting the overall governance and policy framework for controls including roles and responsibilities, reporting and operating structures, assurance processes, tools, compliance and continuous improvement;
  • monitoring performance of the overall project, program or portfolio to identify systemic and cumulative risk,
  •  intervening to maintain strategic alignment;
  • developing and sustaining organisational controls capability;
  • embodying desired values, behaviours and ethics.
  • an interdisciplinary understanding of the business context,
  • credibility that enables engagement with and influence of stakeholders,
  • intuitive insight into control functions
  • maintain confidentiality

Typical role titles:

Head of Project Controls

Controls Director

 

 

Tactical / Integrative

Within strategy, governance and policy framework

  • implementing policy, developing project specific procedures and making tactical level decisions
  • evaluating risks and dependencies within the project and applying appropriate control approaches
  • gathering and making sense of data, monitoring and reporting on performance
  • recommending decisions, approaches and response options
  • managing and developing control teams
  • resolving conflicts as required
  • an interdisciplinary understanding of the controls function
  • interpersonal, influencing, delegating and negotiation skills that enable coordination and timely elicitation of performance data
  • ability to understand the full extent of the project / program
  • an appreciation of systems architecture and tools
  • analytical ability
  • maintain confidentiality
  • Typical role titles:

Controls Manager

Project Controls Manager

Controls Executive Officer

Baseline Manager

Integrative Baseline Manager

Project Controller

 

Discipline specific In one or more of the control disciplines:

  • providing expertise including production, collection, collation, dissemination, synthesis, analysis and meaningful interpretation and administration of data and information
  • providing timely insights, advice and contributions in areas of discipline expertise
  • interfacing effectively with other project disciplines and functions

 

  • technical / sub discipline expertise
  • accuracy and proactive ability to obtain information and apply judgement
  • understanding of their role within the overall controls function
  • ability to identify and communicate pertinent information
  • maintain confidentiality

 

Typical role titles:

Planning / Cost Engineer

Scheduler

Quality Controller/ Quality Controls Manager

Estimator

Risk Controller / Risk Manager

Cost Controller

Cost Schedule Analyst

Cost Account Manager

Figure 1. Descriptions of Role Differentiators

Categories:

COMPLEX PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCY STANDARDS

VIEW 1: SYSTEMS THINKING AND INTEGRATION

This view specifies the competencies required to use systems thinking in the project management of complexity. Systems thinking is a conceptual framework that is valuable to effectively deal with the ever increasing complexity and rate of change in our world. Project managers need the capability to deal with the project as a whole and the project in context, rather than the project in isolation to its environment.

Systems thinking provides project managers with a powerful methodology to increase project performance and reduce / resolve key project risks. Systems thinking is not a single approach, but encompasses a range of methodologies and possible tools.

Most projects operate within larger systems, and are themselves systems. Internationally, project performance measures are moving away from inputs / outputs to be based on project outcomes. These changes, along with increasing environmental uncertainty are driving project managers to not only deal with the project as a system but just as importantly to treat the project as part of a much larger system. In many projects, it is the failure to deal with external forces which has driven project failure.

Elements of Competency

1.1  Classify systems by type

1.2  Apply systems thinking using a contingency approach

1.3  Integrate appropriate systems thinking philosophy in designing the project organisational architecture

1.4  Design the organisational architecture to fit with chaos and uncertainty

1.5  Implement systems thinking

1.6  Planning for chaos and / or high uncertainty

1.7  Planning for a project which exhibits characteristics of complexity and chaos

Underpinning Knowledge

1A  Philosophy of Science

1B  Types of Systems Thinking and System Thinking tool sets

1C  Complexity Theory

1D  Chaos Theory

 

ELEMENT 1.1: Classify systems by type

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional

ExecPM

Complex

Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
1.1.1 Uses PCAT type framework to Classify issues / projects by their level of complexity

P

P C C

L

1.1.2 Understands what a system is, its context within its environment, the hierarchy of systems, boundaries, interfaces, and lifecycle

P

P C C

L

ELEMENT 1.2: Apply systems thinking using a contingency approach

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional

ExecPM

Complex

Project Manager

Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.2.1 Applies system thinking in all areas of the project

P

P C C

L

1.2.2 Selects systems thinking approaches to fit with the level of complexity and the nature of the environment

P

P C C

L

1.2.3 Understands how actions and decisions in one area affect another, and that the optimisation of a system within its environment does not necessarily come from optimising the individual system components

P

P C C

L

1.2.4 Appreciates the role the systems play in the supra system of which it is a part. Capturing the complete set of system requirements is not possible unless the context of the supra system is fully appreciated

P

P C C

L

1.2.5 Appreciates the role the systems play in the supra system of which it is a part. Capturing the complete set of system requirements is not possible unless the context of the supra system is fully appreciated

P

P C C

L

1.2.6 Defines the Lifecycle of the project and establishes lifecycle phases and their relationships depending upon the scope of the project, supra system characteristics, stakeholder requirements, and the level of risk. Defines fit for purpose life cycles to different system elements

P

P

C C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

 

ELEMENT 1.3: Integrate appropriate systems thinking philosophy in designing the project organisational architecture

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.3.1 Integrates systems thinking into organisational and project architecture

P

P C C

L

1.3.2 Aligns systems thinking / organisational architecture / contract

P

P C C

L

1.3.3 Applies basic analytical techniques – analyses, models, and prioritises

P

P C C

L

1.3.4 Sets priorities for activities in order of importance

P

P C C

L

1.3.5 Makes appropriate plans or analysis, systematically breaking down a complex problem or process into component parts.

P

P C C

L

1.3.6 Understands how actions taken on the project may impact other areas of the project, other projects in the organisation or other organisational operations

P

P C C

L

1.3.7 Provides the framework so that solutions to problems or concerns involving the immediate project team are addressed

P

P C C

L

1.3.8 Observes discrepancies, trends, and interrelationships in data, or sees crucial differences between current situation and past situations

P

P C C

L

1.3.9 Applies complex concepts (e.g., root-cause analysis, portfolio analysis, natural selection), or applies knowledge of past discrepancies, trends, and relationships to look at different situations

P

P C C

L

1.3.10 Applies or modifies complex learned concepts or methods appropriately

P

P C C

L

1.3.11 Simplifies complexities by pulling together ideas, issues, and observations into a single concept or a clear presentation

P

P C C

L

1.3.12 Considers the project holistically to provide early recognition of detrimental impacts to safety, quality and the environment as well as emerging opportunities for positive impacts to the same.

P

P C C

L

ELEMENT 1.4: Design the organisational architecture to fit with chaos and uncertainty

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.4.1 Systems Architecture – uses systems thinking and system engineering to develop the 
project architecture and concept design

D

P C

L

1.4.2 Designs the overall project organisational architecture and its systems to deliver an emergent strategy

D C L

1.4.3

Designs the business planning system to fit with and support recursive and non-linear behaviour as normal

D C

L

1.4.4 Ensures projects are outcomes / results focused

P

P C C

L

1.4.5 Ensures double loop learning is built into all processes and systems

D

C

L

1.4.6 Ensures the reward system is linked through to performance measurement (layered). Re- weights it as necessary to drive changes that occur in the business plan and includes planning for the management and mitigation of risk

P

C

L

1.4.7 Ensures contracts support flexibility, responsiveness and change

D

C

L

1.4.8 Analyses the stakeholder needs and expectations to establish and manage the requirements for the system.

D

P C

L

1.4.9 Defines the system architecture and derived requirements to produce a solution that: can be implemented; delivers desired strategic outcomes over the project lifecycle; and supports emergent change

D

P C

L

1.4.10 Develops a systems architecture that can be partitioned into realisable system elements which can be bought together to meet the requirements D P C L
1.4.11 Develops an architecture where there are more than one credible and feasible solution

D

P C

L

1.4.12 Ensures that the system architecture, concept, and systems design are tolerant of misuse, out of spec scenarios, component failure, environmental stress, and evolving needs

 

D

P

C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

ELEMENT 1.5: Implement system thinking

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.5.1 Identifies, confronts, and renegotiates the constraints and assumptions

P

P C

C

L

1.5.2 Ensures that the requirements of later lifecycle stages are addressed at each point in the system design

P

P C C

L

1.5.3 Reviews the system thinking approach over the project life cycle

P

P C C

L

1.5.4 Plans for nonlinear and recursive actions

D

D P C

L

1.5.5 Reduces uncertainty through using discovery

P

P C C

L

1.5.6 Estimates uncertainty using modelling

P

P P C

L

1.5.7 Integrates using montaging. Integration
includes within both within and across systems boundaries

P

P C C

L

1.5.8 Determines which functions are required by the system to meet the requirements. 
Transforms the requirements into a coherent
description of the system functions and their
interfaces that can be used to guide the design activities. The functional requirements
decompose higher level functions to lower
levels and provide traceability of
requirements to functions

P

P C C

L

1.5.9 Ensures that the overall coherence and cohesion of the evolving system design is 
maintained, in a verifiable manner, throughout the lifecycle, and retains the
strategic intent

P

P C C

L

1.5.10 Uses simulation and modelling to: provide early indicators of function and performance; to enable risk mitigation; and to test verification and validity of the system solution

P

P C C

L

1.5.11 Manages concurrent lifecycle activities and the parallel development of system elements

P

P C C L

ELEMENT 1.6: Planning for chaos and / or high uncertainty

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.6.1 Classifies projects according to their level of uncertainty

P C

L

1.6.2 Assesses maturity of stakeholders as their level of maturity will affect what they perceive as being uncertain

P C

L

1.6.3 Selects project strategy and project delivery methodology based on the level of uncertainty and stakeholder maturity

P

C

L

1.6.4 Uses wave planning (how nonlinear and recursive actions can be planned) in planning for complexity and chaos, and to support incremental build strategies

P

C

L

1.6.5 Uses discovery planning (how uncertainty in scope can be reduced) to reduce uncertainty in scope and as a means of driving congruence among the stakeholders

D

D

P C

L

1.6.6 Uses Views (looking at an issue using multiple different perspectives, paradigms, metaphors) broadly to develop a better understanding

P

P P C

L

1.6.7 Uses montaging (how multiple views can be brought together ) to develop an holistic understanding.

D

C

L

1.6.8 Classifies sub projects into types, according to their individual level of uncertainty

D

C

L

ELEMENT 1.7: Planning for a project which exhibits characteristics of complexity and chaos

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

1.7.1 Bases planning system and methodologies on recursive and non-linear behaviours

C

L

1.7.2 Incorporates ongoing double loop learning in planning system

C

L

1.7.3 Focuses the planning system on delivering outcomes using an emergent pathway (incremental / modular build)

C

L

1.7.4 Incorporates problem solving, innovation, and creativity, as pathways to deliver desired outcomes

C

L

 

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

 

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

1A Philosophy of Science Falsification 2
Normal science 2
Anomalies and revolutionary science 2
Punctuated equilibrium 2
Quantitative versus qualitative Research 2
Grounded and action research 2
1B Types of Systems Thinking and System Thinking tool sets SD – System dynamics 2 2 3 3
VSM – Viable systems model 2 2 3 3
SAST – Strategic assumption surfacing and testing 2 2 3 3
IP – interactive planning 2 2 3 3
SSM – Soft system methodology 2 2 3 3
CSH – Critical system heuristics 2 2 3 3
Systems integration 2 2 3 3
1C Complexity Theory Definition of complexity 3
Structural complexity 3
Managing complexity 3
1D Chaos Theory Definition and characteristics of chaos. Chaos in nature, society, and organisations 3
The nature of chaos – recursive and non-linear 3
The butterfly effect 3
Strange attractors 3
Patterns within chaos 3
Strategies to manage chaos 3

VIEW 2: STRATEGY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

This view specifies the competencies required to understand the context of the complex project, and to develop and implement a project strategy and system to deliver the client’s emergent outcomes.

The strategy will take into account the project’s context, the alignment of the project to its organisational setting, the level of complexity and uncertainty of the project, the maturity of the client and contractors, the market, and compliance, to deliver the client’s outcomes which are fit for purpose and provide value for money.

Elements of Competency

2.1  Establish the vision and mission statements, and define outcomes

2.2  Establish the environmental scanning system

2.3  Select the strategy

2.4  Establish the strategic project set

2.5  Project / program implementation

Underpinning Knowledge

2A    Strategic Planning and Uncertainty

2B    Program and Portfolio Management

2C    Outsourcing

2D    Alignment

2E    Project Delivery Methodologies

2F    The International Environment in which the Client Operates

2G    The Commercial and Business Environment in which the Client Operates

ELEMENT 2.1: Establish the vision and mission statements, and define outcomes

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

2.1.1 Develops in consultation with the stakeholders the vision statement, values

charter, code of conduct, and mission statement.

D

D P C

L

2.1.2 Analyses the purpose, goals, scope, outputs, outcomes and constraints for the project and links them to the client’s emergent strategy.

P

P P C

L

2.1.3 Links the outcomes to the organisational goals and the client’s vision and mission statements through measurable key performance indicators and a review and assurance process.

D

D P C

L

2.1.4 Ensures that the strategy fits with the project’s context and the underlying nature and level of uncertainty of the project, the project environment, and the stakeholder maturity.

D

D P C

L

2.1.5 Reviews the strategy and makes changes through double loop learning progressively over the life of the project

D

D P C

L

2.1.6 Defines the desired project objectives in measurable terms and flows them down through the project / program to the implementation level.

D

D P C

L

2.1.7 Establishes weighting of the key performance indicators (KPI) to reflect strategic focus and makes changes over the lifecycle to steer the project

D

D P C

L

2.1.8 Uses strategy and mission statements to drive the ongoing business planning process.

D

D P C

L

 

ELEMENT 2.2: Establish the environmental scanning system

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

2.2.1 Uses ongoing stakeholder mapping and management of relationships with stakeholders including defining stakeholder requirements, managing expectations, and ensures that client accountability requirements are addressed at all stages in a project.

P

P P C

L

2.2.2 Understands both the formal and informal structure or hierarchy of key stakeholder organisations, including the ”chain of command”, key actors, and decision makers, and uses this understanding to influence support to accomplish goals and objectives of the project.

D

D

P C

L

2.2.3 Understands the climate and culture of the key stakeholder organisations and recognises the unspoken organisational constraints – what is and is not possible at certain times or in certain positions

D

D P C

L

2.2.4 Conducts ongoing competitor / technology mapping

P

C

L

2.2.5 Maps stakeholder alignment / differences over the project life cycle

D

D P C

L

2.2.6 Uses ongoing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis using multiple views

D

D P C

L

2.2.7 Continually uses surveys to gather data relevant to the project environment (internally and externally)

D

D P C L
2.2.8 Uses history as a guide:

  • reviews documentation on previous projects to incorporate lessons learned
  • undertakes regular reviews and discusses aspects of previous projects’ histories to provide direction to the project team to aid in the reduction of risk to the project.

D

D P

C

L

2.2.9 Maps and analyses key persons and decision makers over the project lifecycle.

P

P C C

L

2.2.10 Seeks out appropriate leaders and subject- matter experts for their knowledge.

P

P C C

L

2.2.11 Specifies and manages project assumptions and provides guidance on the difference between project assumptions and benefits

P

P C C

L

2.2.12 Builds processes and structures that ensure transfer of information and understanding from programs to the organisation as a whole that influence strategic decisions and produce foundations for new capabilities.

P

P C C

L

2.2.13 Continually seeks new information to assess the effectiveness of the project strategy

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 2.3: Select the strategy

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

2.3.1 Designs the strategy to fit with the level of complexity and maturity of the client, contractor and stakeholders, and selects and contextualises a contract document

D

D C C

L

2.3.2 Writes the business strategy in plain language, and keeps it up-to-date to maintain linkage to business needs. Ensures the business strategy (project execution plan) describes the business direction for the future (short and medium term as minimum; ideally covering longer term as well) in terms of a vision, strategic themes and a portfolio of planned changes to which every program and project contributes

D

D C C

L

2.3.3 Continually updates the business strategy to reflect changes in the business and the contribution made by programs and projects

D

D C C

L

2.3.4 Incorporates key elements that influence client contractual arrangements with industry – legal framework; business environment; competition policy; prices; are incorporated into strategy development and in manages milestone payments in accordance with performance outcomes

D

D C C

L

2.3.5 Gains initial agreement on the project goals with the client, key stakeholders, and the project team

D

D C C

L

2.3.6 Maps the project goals, sub projects, and performance measures within the clients strategic framework, and establishes a governance framework to support delivery in an environment with emergent issues

P

P C C L
2.3.7 Classifies the project maturity and assesses stakeholder maturity

D

D C C

L

2.3.8 Ensures that the interfaces between projects and between projects and business maintain business as usual activities

D

D C C

L

2.3.9 Uses ongoing assessment of compliance / probity issues

P

P C C

L

2.3.10 Uses critical analysis (e.g. SWOT analysis) to identify and plan alternative strategies and business cases

P

P P C

C

2.3.11 Determines the appropriate project management lifecycle to achieve the project deliverables

P

P P C

C

2.3.12 Provides direction on the strategic project plan and ensures the most effective means of delivering the objectives throughout the life of the project is chosen

P

P P C

C

2.3.13 Uses appropriate ( modular or incremental) approaches to the project to help break it down into manageable components and reduce risk

P

P

P C

C

2.3.14 Uses a whole of life approach

P

P P C

C

2.3.15  Establishes systems that integrate the ongoing change management of the scope, schedule, estimates, risks and resources and their communication and acceptance by the client, the project team, and key stakeholders

P

P P C

C

2.3.16 Provides assurance that the appropriate critical success factors and ‘trade-offs’ are applied to the project and provide guidance on the formulation of the mitigation plans

P

P P C

C

2.3.17 Ensures that the strategic resource plan, including human capital, tools and systems, satisfies both current and emergent needs across the life of the project

P

P P

C

C

2.3.18 Specifies and delivers project benefits and realisation

P

P P

C

C

 

ELEMENT 2.4: Establish the strategic project set

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

2.4.1 Establishes the system for the operation of the strategic project set. Ensures the strategic project set lists the key projects / sub projects that are included in the current business plan. Assesses all project options for strategic alignment, and value for money through a business case as part of the annual (or more frequent if required) business planning process

D

D P C

L

2.4.2 Identifies project options and develops direction of business cases. Provides direction on the implementation of the investment appraisal process and assurance that the business case reflects the outcome

D

D P C

L

2.4.3 Uses strategic fit, value for money and fit for purpose to select projects to make up the strategic project set

D

D P C

L

2.4.4 Uses strategic analysis to select the project delivery methodology (PDM)

D

D P C

L

2.4.5 Ensures that project business cases are fully developed

D

D P C

L

2.4.6 Conducts ongoing reviews of projects (drop old / select new) against strategic criteria. Frequently reviews the composition of the strategic project set. Modifies or cancels a project if it is not delivering, or is considered no longer strategic or value for money  

 

 

ELEMENT 2.5: Project / program implementation

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

2.5.1 Designs and establishes the project management office (PMO) to lead and manage overall project implementation

D

D C C

L

2.5.2 Leads the overall project strategically.

·       provides direction in the management of the project sponsor

·       provides detailed information that establishes the definition of the new capabilities, the way they are going to be delivered, details of how the program will be run, changes implemented and benefits delivered

D

D P C

L

2.5.3 Leads the overall project operationally

D

D C C

C

2.5.4 Ensures that the planning system integrates simple / complex projects

D

D C C

L

2.5.5 Ensures that there is ongoing integration and management of risk, estimating, resources levelling and scheduling

P

P C C

C

2.5.6 Focuses on project lifecycle management (whole of life)

D

D C C

L

2.5.7 Leads strategic change management.

·       establishes standard systems

·       follows through on client enquiries, requests, and complaints

·       defines the project change control process to ensure that all proposals are fully assessed for their impact on the project deliverable prior to acceptance

D

D C C

L

2.5.8 Uses a systemic process for establishing realistic, tangible and emergent outcomes throughout the project lifecycle

D

P C C

L

2.5.9 Deals with project risk proactively including providing advice and guidance on the identification of the factors that may affect the project and assurance of the timely resolution of novel and contentious issues

D

D C C

L

2.5.10 Focuses on delivering reliable project outcomes

D

D C C

L

2.5.11 Maintains clear communications with the client regarding mutual expectations and provides advice on the project stakeholder community and assists in the evaluation of their risk to the project objectives

D

D C C

L

2.5.12 Provides guidance and direction on the allocation of the right resources to the right programs and projects in line with the realisation of the required benefits

D

D C C

L

2.5.13 Integrates all project activity using the views in this document as a basis for defining activity to be integrated across all views

D

D C C

L

2.5.14 Focuses visible leadership attention on Safety, Quality and the Environment.

P

P C C

L

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM

Complex

Project Manager

Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

2A Strategic Planning and

Uncertainty

Planned (intended) strategy 1 1 2 3
Emergent strategy 1 1 2 3
Approaches to strategy 1 1 2 3
Contingency theory 1 1 2 3
Resource dependency and population ecology 1 1 2 2
Strategic planning processes and tools 1 1 2 4
Strategic implementation 1 1 2 4
Games theory 1 1 2 2
Performance – strategy versus structure 1 1 2 3
Uncertainty – The WHOW Matrix 2 2 3 3
Project types – classified by their level of uncertainty 2 2 3 3
Project strategies to fit with project types – a contingency approach 2 2 3 3
The impact of maturity on uncertainty 1 1 3 3
2B Program and Portfolio Management Portfolio management & Program management 1 1 3 3
Project management office (PMO) 1 1 3 3
Project types and classification 2 2 3 3
Project lifecycles – simple and complex 2 2 3 3
Change management 1 1 2 4
Resources management / levelling 2 2 3 3
2C Outsourcing Outsourcing strategy 1 1 2 3
Types of outsourcing 1 1 2 3
Contractor selection, contract options 2 2 3 3
Taking charge, transition-in, transition-out, and lifecycle 1 1 2 3
Managing outsourcing contracts 1 1 2 3
2D Alignment Fit 2 2 3 3
Using dialectics to drive performance 2 2 3 3
The impact of the culture and the contract 2 2 3 3
Using the reward design and the performance measures to drive motivation 2 2 3 3
Partnering and integrated process teams (IPT) 2 2 3 3
2E Project Delivery Methodologies Traditional contracting 3 3 3 3
Design construct and maintain (DCM) 3 3 3 3
Partnering 3 3 3 3
Public private partnerships (PPP) 1 1 2 3
Private finance initiative (PFI) 1 1 2 3
Evolutionary acquisition 2 2 3 3
Alliancing 2 2 3 3
Joint ventures 2 2 3 3
Integrated product and process development (IPPD) 2 2 3 3
Integrated product team (IPT) 2 2 3 3
Managing Successful Programs (MSP) 2 2 3 3
2F The International Environment in which the Client Operates Foreign Review Board (FRB) regulations 1 2
Commodities 1 2
Trade agreements 1 2
International competitiveness 1 2
Intellectual property (IP) 1 1 1 2
2G The Commercial and Business Environment in which the Client Operates International markets

 

1 2
Investment decisions 1 1 2 3
Market size 1 2
Market share 1 2
Dealing with multi nationals 1 1 2 3
Dealing with international boards 1 1 2 3
The impact of local legal systems on international contracts 1 1 2 3

 

VIEW 3: BUSINESS PLANNING, LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT, REPORTING AND PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

This view specifies the competencies required to develop and implement the project business planning, reporting, and performance measurement systems. The business plan defines the program at an overview level with a high-level view of the project schedule and the overall project budget. The business plan also identifies and defines the operational goals and objectives of the project and establishes the reporting framework to be used and the performance management methodology that forms part of that reporting methodology. Additionally, the business planning process identifies the lifecycle management process to be followed and provides the planning basis for the establishment of the project’s gate review framework.

Elements of Competency

3.1  Design and establish the business planning, lifecycle management, reporting and performance measurement systems

3.2  Ongoing leadership and management of the business planning, gate review, lifecycle management, reporting and performance measurement systems

3.3  Ongoing management of the strategic business plan and budget to maintain achievement of strategic outcomes

3.4  Establish project exit criteria

3.5  Procurement

 

Underpinning Knowledge

3A  Business Planning

3B  Performance Measurement

3C  Reporting

3D  Governance and Financial Legislation

3E  The overall financial management of the project

ELEMENT 3.1: Design and establish the business planning, lifecycle management, reporting and performance measurement systems

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

3.1.1 Designs and establishes a formal business planning (BP) process that supports an emergent, transformational, project management strategy

D

D P C

L

3.1.2 Demonstrates ability to select appropriate contracting instrument. For example: from traditional, alliance, accord or public private partnership (PPP) models

D

D P C

L

3.1.3 Designs and implements the lifecycle management (LCM), reporting and performance management (RPM) system

P

P P C

L

3.1.4 Establishes the project budget, schedule and risk register

D

P C C

L

3.1.5 Implements and commissions the BP and RPM systems

D

D P C

L

3.1.6 Establishes the business plan framework and pro forma and templates for all project plans and communication documents

D

D P C

L

3.1.7 Transitions BP and RPM systems throughout the project organisation

P

P C

C

L

3.1.8 Establishes methodology for shared systems

P

P C C

C

3.1.9 Designs and implements appropriate project security system

P

P P C

C

3.1.10 Progressively ratchets up performance levels, balanced with incremental cost considerations

P

P C C

L

3.1.11 Balances speed of provision of information against reliability of information

P

P C C

C

3.1.12 Establishes LCM and gate review framework

P

P C C

L

ELEMENT 3.2: Ongoing leadership and management of business planning, gate review, lifecycle management, reporting and performance measurement systems

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

3.2.1 Designs and runs efficient Project Control Group (PCG) meetings

P

P C C

L

3.2.2 Performs time scale tracking and analysis of outcomes from RPM system

P

P C C

L

3.2.3 Designs and implements strategic change management

P

P C C

L

3.2.4 Develops KPI that are aligned to the strategic objectives, are tangible, timely, and changes the KPI to reflect the project life cycle stage

P

P C C

L

3.2.5 Establishes a collaborative environment, data collection, data warehouse and performance assessment system that supports lifecycle management, performance assessment and timely feedback

D

D C C

L

3.2.6 Conducts ongoing KPI tracking, analysis, relevance and review

P

P C C

L

3.2.7 Designs and implements corrective actions

P

P C C

L

3.2.8 Regularly reviews business case and project management plan in the light of changing circumstances and the current strategic environment

P

P

C C

L

3.2.9 Manages progress of the project against scope, quality, safety, time and cost baselines including approved changes and does so within the distributed gate review plan requirements

P

P C C

L

3.2.10 Manages within organisational governance requirements

D

D C C

L

3.2.11 Establishes base line data on KPI and builds baseline data to measure subsequent performance and project maturity

D

D C

L

3.2.12 Focuses performance measures and reporting to different stakeholders and ensures the presentation of performance data is clear and understandable

D

D C

L

 

ELEMENT 3.3: Ongoing management of the strategic business plan and budget to maintain achievement of strategic outcomes

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

3.3.1 Reviews project plans and general documentation for relevance within the project’s changing environment

P

P C C

L

3.3.2 Reviews client objectives and environment

P

P C

C

L

3.3.3 Employs double loop learning techniques within the gate review process

P

P C C

L

3.3.4 Monitors project performance through peer and gate reviews aimed at establishing shortfalls against contract performance, technical performance and process performance

P

P C C

L

3.3.5 Reviews / changes KPI to reflect the project stage and changed circumstances

P

P C C

L

3.3.6 Reviews risk register and effectiveness of mitigation/control plans

P

P C C

L

3.3.7 Regularly tests the project budget elements of expenditure, invoicing and cash flow

P

P C C

L

3.3.8 Manages ongoing testing for value for money and fit for purpose

P

P C C

L

3.3.9 Regularly reports to client and stakeholders

P

P C C

L

3.3.10 Provides feedback to projects and teams

P

P C

C

L

3.3.11 Monitors client satisfaction. Distributes helpful information to clients

P

P C C

L

3.3.12 Analyses and implements the business implications of change

P

P C C

L

3.3.13 Ensures that change fits with the project strategy and desired outcomes

P

P C C

L

3.3.14 Ensures that changes are tangible, strategic and achievable

P

P C C

L

3.3.15 Ensures that the project is adding to the strategic advantage of the client

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 3.4: Establish project exit criteria

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

3.4.1 Establishes a completion plan that includes all aspects of delivery of project outcomes across the entire project life cycle

P

P C C

C

3.4.2 Establishes testing and release mechanism in conjunction with stakeholders including the use of pilot projects to ease transition to operational service

P

P C C

C

3.4.3 Determines appropriate commissioning/transition staging

P

P C C

L

3.4.4 Chairs all transition meetings

P

P C C

C

3.4.5 Identifies achievement of the provision of contract deliverables through sound reconciliation process

D

D P C

C

3.4.6 Shares lessons learned, best practices, etc. with project stakeholders

P

P C C

C

3.4.7 Manages the transition to the operational/support stage of the project’s lifecycle using the approved gate review process

D

D C C

L

ELEMENT 3.5: Procurement

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

3.5.1 Develops and assesses the bid documents, conducts environmental scanning, and develops a focused strategy and project plan to manage the bid as a project

P

P C C

L

3.5.2 Develops a contingency based procurement strategy that includes testing potential contractors for appropriate maturity, competency and culture

P

P C C

L

3.5.3 Ensures procurement processes and contracts to satisfy probity and governance requirements while maintaining competition and a structured negotiation process that uses convergence

P

P C C

L

3.5.4 Ensures procurement assessment systems and tools are based on value for money, fit for purpose, and the risk of doing business

P

P

C C

L

3.5.5 Focuses procurement on outcome and results, not outputs

P

P C C

L

3.5.6 Ensures procurement is established and operates as a system. A procurement plan is reviewed and updated as part of the annual business planning process

P

P C C

L

3.5.7 Develops a detailed procurement strategy that covers a full range of procurement options

D

D C C

L

3.5.8 Ensures that contracts are designed to accommodate complexity and uncertainty

D

D C C

L

3.5.9 Recognises and respects the expectations of both the client and the contractor

P

P C C

L

3.5.10 Understands and integrates government industry and procurement policies into the overall procurement system

P

P C L

L

 

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

 

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM

Complex

Project Manager

Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

3A Business Planning Business plan structure 2 2 3 4
Business planning process 2 2 3 4
Business cases 2 2 3 4
Value for money / fit for purpose / risk of doing business 2 2 3 4
Budgeting and reporting 3 3 3 4
Strategic alignment 2 2 3 4
3B Performance Measurement Using data for quantitative data decision- making 2
Layering and using performance measurement as an alignment tool 2 2 3 3
Reliability and validity 2
Timeliness and tangibility 2 2 3 3
Balanced score card design 2 2 3 3
Alignment to strategy – tangibility and ownership 1 1 3 3
Expectancy theory 1 1 2 3
Instrumentality 1 1 2 3
Pareto 2 2 3 3
Using partnering to establish performance measures 2 2 3 3
3C Reporting IT&T design and operation 1 1 2 3
Report confidence levels / timing 2
Decision information systems 1 1 2 3
Triangulation 2
Bounded rationality 1 1 2 3
3D Governance and Financial Legislation Governance 2 2 3 3
Agency theory 1 1 2 3
Transparency 2 2 3 3
Empowerment 2 2 3 3
Role and responsibility design 2 2 3 3
Financial legislation 2 2 3 3
Codes of conduct 2 2 3 3
3E The overall financial

management of the project

Assessing financial performance, performance ratios and analysis, discounted cash flow (DCF), internal rate of return (IRR), sensitivity analysis, performance indicators, and audit requirements 1 1 3 3
International transfer pricing – understanding transfer pricing in the business environment in which the client operates, internal and external pressures in transfer pricing, and transfer pricing methods 2 2
Stock market and share trading – an understanding of how the stock market works. 2 2
Company structures and the flow of funds – relationships between parent and subsidiary companies 3 3
Contractual obligations – Subcontractors – “profit on profit” and “overhead on overhead”. 2 2 3 3
An understanding of profit – profit ratios, an overview of what drives profit and return on investment, sources of profit, funds transfer, international parent and holding companies and joint ventures 3 3
Governance responsibilities 2 2 3 3

 

VIEW 4: CHANGE AND JOURNEY

This view specifies the competencies required to develop and implement the ongoing change and journey management system to support implementation of the emergent strategy. As complex projects are dynamic and emerging systems, dealing with ongoing change becomes routine. Most complex projects embark on a journey towards a vision. Complex project managers have to plan and constantly adapt their strategy and implementation plan along the journey.

Communication and stakeholder management are central to: alignment of stakeholders; creating motivation; driving continuous improvement; problem avoidance and resolution; the creation and development of the project culture; and political management.

Elements of Competency

4.1  Define culture of the project environment including key values and their hierarchy

4.2  Classify projects by size, risk and complexity

4.3  Classify the maturity levels of the client (customer), contractors and key stakeholders, personality profiles, and leadership style(s)

4.4  Determine the scale of change required in project environment and the rate of change that is needed

4.5  Classify the level of impact of change, uncertainty, risk areas, and resistance to change

4.6  Develop a change and journey management strategy to fit with the project culture and leadership style

4.7  Establish a change and journey management system

4.8  Establish a stakeholder management strategy and plan

4.9  Establish a communication strategy and plan

4.10  Uses Symbolism and the management of meaning

4.11  Double loop learning

 

Underpinning Knowledge

4A  Change Management

4B  Resource Dependency

4C  Stakeholder Management

4D  Management of Meaning

4E  Pluralism and Political Management

4F  Project and Organisational Lifecycles

 

ELEMENT 4.1: Define culture of project environment, including their key values and their hierarchy

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.1.1 Understands the project environment, its history, and the values / behaviours that form the basis of its culture

D

D P

C

L

4.1.2 Understands the project needs and ramifications for safety, quality and environmental impact beyond the legal framework

P

P P C

L

4.1.3 Logs the history of change in the project environment

D

D P C

C

4.1.4 Shows respect for the values and the project environment history

D

D P C

L

4.1.5 Identifies cultural dimensions of the project and organisation using a range of audit techniques

D

D P C

C

ELEMENT 4.2: Classify the projects and subprojects by size, risk and complexity

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.2.1 Classifies programs by type and specifies the level of complexity and uncertainty

D

D

P

C

L

4.2.2 Classifies sub projects by type and specifies the level of their complexity and uncertainty

D

D P C

L

ELEMENT 4.3: Classify the maturity levels of the client (customer), contractors and key stakeholders, personality profiles and leadership style(s)

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.3.1 Tests organisational maturity

D

D P C

L

4.3.2 Develops personality profiles of key individuals across project lifecycle

D

D P C

C

4.3.3 Develops personality profile map of the organisation

D

D P C

C

4.3.4 Defines leadership styles of key individuals across project lifecycle

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 4.4: Determine the scale of change required in project environment and rate of change that is needed

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.4.1 Uses proposed project / project organisational design to complete gap analysis

D

D P C

L

4.4.2 Defines scale/impact of change required (overall and by view)

D

D P C

L

4.4.3 Defines rate of change required ( overall and by view)

D

D P C

L

4.4.4 Understands history of change in project / project organisation including the reasons for success or failure of previous changes

D

D P C

C

ELEMENT 4.5: Classify the level of impact of change, uncertainty, risk areas, and resistance to change

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.5.1 Identifies the potential impacts on personnel affected by the change

D

D

P

C

C

4.5.2 Identifies the level of resistance to change / journey

D

D P

C

C

4.5.3 Identifies the level of uncertainty in change / journey

D

D P C

L

4.5.4 Completes a risk analysis that deals with rate of change, scale of change, and current leadership style, and analyses the impact of change

D

D P C

L

ELEMENT 4.6: Develop a change and journey management strategy to fit with the project culture and leadership style

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.6.1 Develops the change / journey management strategy

D

D P C

L

4.6.2 Identifies and analyses implementation risks

D

D P C

L

4.6.3 Selects proposed change / journey management strategy

D

D P C

L

4.6.4 Tests fit of strategy with strategic objectives and program restraints

D

D P C

L

4.6.5 Defines change / journey strategy and obtains approval

D

D

P

C L
4.6.6 Identifies leadership / personality profile issues and options

D

D P C

L

4.6.7 Develops the strategy and implementation plan to deliver change

D

D P C

L

 

ELEMENT 4.7: Establish a change and journey management system

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.7.1 Develops the journey navigation map for the establishment, implementation, commissioning and close out of the project

D

D

P

C

L

4.7.2 Ensures that change / journey management is integrated with all other views and plans

D

D P C

L

4.7.3 Ensures that change / journey management is included in key performance indicators, benefits identification and realisation requirements

D

D P C

L

4.7.4 Ensures that change / journey management is specifically resourced

D

D P C

L

4.7.5 Ensures that change / journey management is included in sub projects

D

D P C

L

4.7.6 Builds change / journey management into roles and responsibility statements and ensures that they are appropriately weighted

D

D P C

L

4.7.7 Uses the management of meaning as a key tool in cultural change

D

D P C

L

 

ELEMENT 4.8: Establish a stakeholder management strategy and plan

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.8.1 Identifies project internal and external stakeholders

D

D P

C

L

4.8.2 Defines stakeholder positions, values, objectives, key influencers, cultures, resources, competencies, decision making process and political approach

D

D P C

L

4.8.3 Analyses stakeholders using rich pictures and cause and effect diagrams

D

D P C

L

4.8.4 Uses integration techniques (bringing together individual stakeholder views) to understand stakeholders

D

D P C

L

4.8.5 Develops stakeholder management strategy, including on-going review

D

D P C

L

4.8.6 Uses double loop learning to drive ongoing review and updating of the stakeholder management strategy

D

D P C

L

ELEMENT 4.9: Establish a communication strategy and plan

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.9.1 Develops internal and external communication strategy and plan.

D

D P C

L

4.9.2 Establishes the communication system which defines the processes and information flows associated with communications

D

D P C

L

4.9.3 Designs the communication system to work both ways (to provide feedback as well as deliver information)

D

D P C

L

4.9.4 Links communication system to performance and reporting system

D

D P C

L

4.9.5 Uses communication system to build project team, to develop and maintain project culture.

D

D P C

L

4.9.6 Details the type, normal frequency and subject coverage of project communication

D

D P C

L

4.9.7 Regularly audits project communication to identify issues and improve practice

D

D P C

L

ELEMENT 4.10: Uses symbolism and the management of meaning to facilitate change

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.10.1 Uses the creation of myths as a key tool in cultural change

D

D P C

L

4.10.2 Provides visible leadership that ‘’walks the talk’’. Sets high performance standards for self, acting as a role model for the team

P

P C C

L

4.10.3 Searches out opportunities that link project values to outcomes to create new symbols of behaviour

D

D P C

L

4.10.4 Uses both positive and negative symbolism

D

D P

C

L
4.10.5 Uses first level supervision as a primary source of communication

P

P P C

C

4.10.6 Searches out opportunities that link the project values to social values for human safety, standards of quality and environmental stewardship.

P

P P C

L

 

ELEMENT 4.11: Double loop learning

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

4.11.1 Is willing and able to change foundational views and look at issues through others’ eyes

D

D P C

L

4.11.2 Reframes the business plan to fit with change in environment and project position

D

D P C

L

4.11.3 Uses multiple and divergent views to gain understanding

D

D P C

L

4.11.4 Is aware of and deliberately works to avoid pride of authorship issues

D

D P C

L

4.11.5 Is able to work in an environment that is non- linear and recursive

D

D

P

C

L

4.11.6 Defines the project review and assurance process and provides direction on its implementation within the team

D

D P

C

L

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

4A Change Management Scale of change 1 1 2 3
Rate of change 1 1 2 4
Depth of change 1 1 2 3
Resistance to change 1 1 2 4
Project managed change 1 1 2 4
Change strategies 1 1 2 4
Impact of leadership styles 2 2 3 4
Process consulting 1 1 2 3
Facilitation and workshop design 2 2 3 3
4B Resource Dependency Resource dependency theory 1 1 2 3
Creating unique competencies 1 1 3 4
Organisational maturity 1 1 3 4
4C Stakeholder Management Stakeholder mapping 2 2 3 4
Analysing stakeholders 2 2 3 4
Using views to understand stakeholders 2 2 3 4
Alignment 2 2 3 4
IPTs 2 2 3 3
4D Management of Meaning Symbolism 1 1 2 4
Cognition 1 1 2 3
Anthropology – cultures and how they are created / changed 1 1 2 3
Behaviourism 1 1 2 3
4E Pluralism and Political Management Pluralism 1 1 2 3
Games theory 1 1 2 3
Power 1 1 2 3
Empowerment 2 2 3 3
Decision making process and influencers 2 2 3 3
4F Project and Organisational Lifecycles Traditional PM lifecycle 3 3 3 3
Outsourcing / change project lifecycle 1 1 2 3
Program management lifecycle 1 1 3 3
Chaos theory 2 3
Planning for complexity 2 4

 

VIEW 5: INNOVATION, CREATIVITY AND WORKING SMARTER

This view specifies the competencies required to design, develop, lead and manage a project organisation that delivers innovation, creativity and continuous improvement in projects that are complex and non- linear/recursive in their nature.

Elements of Competency

5.1  Driving innovation

5.2  Identifying key innovative opportunities

5.3  Evaluating innovative opportunities

5.4  Driving continuous improvement

5.5  Benchmarking / best of breed

5.6  Design management

Underpinning Knowledge

 

5A Cognition

5B  Innovation and Creativity

5C  Organisational Learning

5D  Planning Design

ELEMENT 5.1: Driving innovation

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.1.1 Develops a strategy that creates environments and systems to encourage / support innovation and creativity. Scans the environment for opportunities

D

D P C

L

5.1.2 Establishes an organisational architecture that fosters innovation and creativity and uses a top down / bottom up approach

D

D P C

L

5.1.3 Develops creative teams and selects team members that are intuitive and provides opportunities for them to respond creatively

D

D P C

L

5.1.4 Provides opportunities and rewards for innovation that add value to the project

D

D P C

L

5.1.5 Uses workshops and integrated process teams that bring in outsiders and different disciplines

P

P P C L
5.1.6 Thinks outside the box and encourages blue sky approaches. Assesses levels of innovation according to project lifecycle stage. Closes out and provides feedback

D

D P C

L

 

ELEMENT 5.2: Identifying key innovative opportunities

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.2.1 Focuses on key opportunity areas

P

P C C L

5.2.2

Supports multiple initiatives and progressively selects best value for money options

P

P C C

L

5.2.3 Looks for initiatives occurring in the workplace

P

P C

C

C

5.2.4 Encourages / empowers teams at the operational level to identify opportunities and to defeat organisational inertia against change

P

P C C

L

5.2.5 Uses new continuous improvement tools

D

D P C

L

 

ELEMENT 5.3: Evaluating innovative opportunities

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.3.1 Evaluates competing opportunities, prioritises and focuses resources

D

D C C

L

5.3.2 Runs multiple innovation opportunities concurrently and progressively selects the most beneficial business cases

D

D P C

L

5.3.3 Tests at the operational level

D

D P C

C

5.3.4 Uses peer review and pilot projects – looks at all the angles and covers all the bases

D

D C C

C

5.3.5 Uses devil advocates to test ideas and processes

D

D P C

C

5.3.6 Analyses the risk of using innovation vs existing tried and proven methodologies

D

D P C

C

 

ELEMENT 5.4: Driving continuous improvement

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.4.1 Develops a continuous improvement organisational architecture and culture. Drives increased effectiveness of the project team and the way it does business

D

D P

C

L

5.4.2 Instils a no-blame culture

P

P C C

L

5.4.3 Fosters a collaborative approach amongst stakeholders

P

P C C

L

5.4.4 Sets baselines and stretch targets

P

P C C

L

5.4.5 Empowers teams through business case approaches linked to a performance measure and encourages use of collaborative tools

D

D P C

L

5.4.6 Uses a top down/bottom up approach

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 5.5: Benchmarking / best of breed

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.5.1 Understands where they are now and the need to change

P

P C

C

L

5.5.2 Uses best of breed and benchmarking on key activities

P

P C C

L

5.5.3 Is aware of incremental costs

D

D C C

C

5.5.4 Uses gap analysis

P

P C C

L

5.5.5 Periodically re-evaluates process targets – raises the bar

D

D P C

L

5.5.6 Closes the loop

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 5.6: Design management

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

5.6.1 Establishes a client needs determination process

D

D P C

L

5.6.2 Implements a linear and recursive design process

D

D P

C

L

5.6.3 Designs and implementation teams are fully integrated into one aligned team

D

D P C

L

5.6.4 Uses convergence / divergence processes with milestones

D

D P C

L

5.6.5 Designs to a cost / value for money / fit for purpose

D

D C C

L

5.6.6 Uses prototyping and pilot projects

D

D C C

L

5.6.7 Avoids pride of authorship

D

D C C

L

5.6.8 Uses Design thinking as a focused strategy for project whole of life and sustainability

P

P C C

L

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

 

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

5A Cognition Cognition 2 3
Learning styles 1 1 2 3
Memory 2 3
Bounded rationality 1 1 2 3
5B Innovation and Creativity How creativity occurs in the human brain 1 1 2 2
Creative teams 1 1 2 4
Blue sky 2 2 2 2
Complementarity 2 2 3 3
Impact of personality profile 1 1 3 3
Strategies to support / drive creativity 1 1 2 3
5C Organisational Learning Culture 1 1 2 3
Bounded rationality 1 1 2 3
Expectancy theory 1 1 2 3
Management of meaning 1 1 2 4
Learning loops 1 1 2 3
Kaizen 2 2 3 3
5D Planning Design Design process 2 2 3 4
Convergence / divergence 2 2 3 4
Client needs determination 2 2 3 4
Milestones 3 3 3 3
Design standards 2 2 3 3
Integrating design and implementation in complex projects 1 1 3 4
Prototyping and pilot projects 2 2 3 4

 

VIEW 6: ORGANISATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

This view specifies the competencies required to design, establish and manage the organisational architecture for complex projects.

Elements of Competency

6.1  Designing the project organisation

6.2  Establishing and managing the project organisation

6.3  Developing project maturity

6.4  Strategic human resources management

 

Underpinning Knowledge

6A Organisational Design

6B Seven S’s and Dialectics

6C Networks

6D Teams

6E Organisational Maturity

6F Integrated Project and Process Teams

6G Reward Design

6H Fit, Split, and Congruence

 

ELEMENT 6.1: Designing the project organisation

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

6.1.1 Designs the overall organisational architecture

P

P C C

L

6.1.2 Ensures that fit, congruence and creative tension exist and are managed to deliver creative energy to the project

P

P C C

L

6.1.3 Develops the organisational architecture to take account of governance requirements

P

P C C

L

6.1.4 Uses an integrated multidisciplinary approach throughout the organisation) to deliver project outcomes and avoid stovepipes

P

P C C

L

6.1.5 Develops implementation and operational plans for each key system

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 6.2: Establishing and managing the project organisation

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

6.2.1 Obtains agreement and commitment to organisational architecture among key stakeholders

P

P C C

L

6.2.2 Aligns and keeps stakeholders informed

P

P C C

L

6.2.3 Establishes roles and responsibilities, systems, policies and processes P P C C L
6.2.4 Establishes the operational management team P P C C L
6.2.5 Establishes and manages integrated project and process teams and their shared systems P P C C L
6.2.6 Reviews organisational architecture to maintain fit with changing project phase / circumstances P P C C L
6.2.7 Uses workshops and facilitation to create synergy, alignment and draw out deeper issues P P C C L
6.2.8 Creates an organisational architecture that facilitates a positive work environment P P C C L
6.2.9 Brings out the best in people P P C C L
6.2.10 Expresses positive expectations of others directly involved in the project. Speaks to team members in positive terms P P C C L
6.2.11 Genuinely values input and expertise of others on the team and is willing to learn from others (especially subordinates) P P C C L
6.2.12 Publicly credits others who have performed well. Encourages and empowers the project team, making them feel strong and a true contributor to overall project success P P C C L
6.2.13 Deals with conflict in an open and collaborative way to facilitate a beneficial resolution P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 6.3: Developing project maturity

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
6.3.1 Reviews existing key stakeholder maturity P P C C L
6.3.2 Defines the level of project maturity required – continuously improves processes; ensures common processes are used across the project; records lessons learned and applies those lessons to the project P P C C L
6.3.3 Uses gap analysis and SWOT P P C C L
6.3.4 Develops and implements change strategy P P C C L
6.3.5 Reviews the organisation’s maturity over the project lifecycle P P C C L
6.3.6 Establishes an induction process for new stakeholders P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 6.4: Strategic human resources management

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
6.4.1 Leads the design of the strategic organisational architecture including defining the skills and roles required to meet the project deliverables throughout the life of the project P P C C L
6.4.2 Uses environmental scanning P P C C L
6.4.3 Implements succession planning P P C C L
6.4.4 Leads change strategies to facilitate human resource management P P C C L
6.4.5 Understands competency gaps and establishes competency development strategies and programs P P C C L
6.4.6 Measures the cultural and climate management P P C C L
6.4.7 Establishes mentoring in the project P P C C L
6.4.8 Ensures that the design and reliability of recruitment processes is reliable P P C C L
6.4.9 Uses workshop based recruitment D D P C L
6.4.10 Leads an organisation which is characterised by low turnover of key personnel P P C C L
6.4.11 Ensures the relevant skills are available within the organisation to facilitate the appointment of suitable individuals to the project delivery teams P P C C L
6.4.12 Identifies and secures the commitment of
necessary internal and external resources, including internal and external expertise
P P C C L
6.4.13 Develops champions of change, including line
and functional managers, steering group members, stakeholders and project managers
P P C C L

 

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

6A Organisational Design Strategy 1 1 2 3
Structural forms 2 2 3 3
Basis of groupings 2 2 3 3
Empowerment 2 2 3 3
Liaison devices 2 2 3 3
Coordinating mechanisms 2 2 3 3
Unit size 2 2 3 3
Span of control 2 2 3 3
Agency theory 1 1 2 3
Virtual organisations 2 2 3 3
6B Seven S’s and Dialectics Strategy

Planned ↔Opportunistic

1 1 2 4
Structure

Elitist

↔ Pluralist

Systems  Mandatory↔Discretionary
Style Managerial↔Transformational
Staff

Collegial↔ Individuality

Shared values

Hard minds↔ Soft hearts

Skills

Maximise↔Meta-mize

6C Networks Characteristics of network organisations 2 2 3 3
Design of network organisations 2 2 3 3
Creating alignment in network organisations 2 2 3 3
Trust 2 2 3 3
Cultural selection 2 2 3 3
Maturity 1 1 3 4
Dealing with complexity and change in network 2 3
6D Alignment Characteristics of teams 2 2 3 3
Designing teams 2 2 3 3
Motivating teams 2 2 3 3
Empowerment / basis of grouping / co-ordinating mechanism 2 2 3 3
Team member selection and complementarity 2 2 3 3
Leading teams 2 2 3 4
Creative teams 2 2 3 3
Virtual teams 2 2 3 3
Team member role rotation and complementarity 2 2 3 3
Impact of personality and culture on teams 2 2 3 3
First line supervisor and the impact of empowerment 2 2 3 3
Team dynamics, process design, and workshop design 2 2 3 3
6E Organisational Maturity Maturity models – definitions and stages in development 1 1 3 4
Characteristics of organisational maturity at each stage 1 1 3 3
Gap analysis 2 2 3 3
Maturity development process 1 1 3 4
Testing for maturity – maturity, competencies, and culture 1 1 3 4
6F Integrated Project and

Process Teams

Characteristics of IPTs 2 2 3 3
Leadership team structure and operation 2 2 3 3
Management team structure and operation 2 2 3 3
Project teams’ structure and operation 2 2 3 3
Functional teams’ structure and operation 2 2 3 3
Stakeholder membership in IPTs 2 2 3 3
Shared systems 2 2 3 3
Lines of reporting / accountability 2 2 3 3
6G Reward Design Reward design 2 2 3 3
Expectancy theory 1 1 2 3
Instrumentality 1 1 2 3
Motivation theory 2 2 3 3
Cultural differences 2 2 3 3
Alignment 2 2 3 3
6H Fit, Split, and Congruence Organisational fit 2 2 3 3
Congruence 2 2 3 3

 

VIEW 7: LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION

Good Leadership is the most important competence of a Project Manager.

This view specifies the competencies required to lead complex projects. Leadership is a key variable in the success of a project, and greatly impacts the project philosophy, culture, and the ability of the project to develop an emergent strategy and to deliver a successful outcome. Central to the practice of good leadership is the capacity of the leader to engage their stakeholders (both internal and external), and to develop strong interpersonal relationships with their teams, clients and senior staff through establishing shared meaning about the project‘s goals and activities at the personal, project and organisational level.

Elements of Competency

7.1  Understanding

7.2  Sculpturing

7.3  Mobilising

7.4  Inspiring

7.5  Situational Leadership

7.6  Communication

Underpinning Knowledge

7A  Leadership frameworks

7B  Complementarity

7C  Empowerment

7D  Values and Trust

7E  Communication frameworks

7F  Teams / Perceived Communication Reliability

7G  Issues Resolution

 

ELEMENT 7.1: Understanding

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

7.1.1 Understands what drives and motivates the project team, and their capabilities and is aware of cultural differences

P

P C C

L

7.1.2 Understands themselves and the individuals in the project team, what drives and motivates them personally, and their individual capabilities

P

P C C

L

7.1.3 Actively seeks many external views to help them gain understanding

D

D C C

L

7.1.4 Is able to effectively deal and understand views opposing their own views and is open to criticism and learning

P

P C C

L

7.1.5 Uses their understanding of individuals and teams to make the project strategy tangible to individuals and teams

P

P C C

L

7.1.6 Understands how individuals and teams contribute and create synergy

P

P C C

L

7.1.7 Takes time to understand how individuals and teams are performing and working together to deliver the project outcomes

P

P C C

L

7.1.8 Analyses and reviews how the individuals and teams are working together. Strives to understand both the present emotions and explicit content of communications from stakeholders

P

P C C

L

7.1.9 Accepts responsibility and admits failures or shortcomings

P

P C C

L

7.1.10 Learns from own mistakes

P

P C C

L

 

ELEMENT 7.2: Sculpturing

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
7.2.1 Communicates the project strategy to the project stakeholders and makes it tangible at a persona level and human scale P P C C L
7.2.2 Is viewed as fully committed to a successful project and the project team P P C C L
7.2.3 Is focused on the big picture D D C C L
7.2.4 Selects key people (competences, political, symbolic, etc.) and actively involves them in developing and implementing the project’s strategy over the project lifecycle P P C C L
7.2.5 Responds flexibly and strategically to ongoing change P P C C L
7.2.6 Creates a compelling vision of the project’s future that is tangible to the project’s stakeholders P P C C L
7.2.7 Avoids taking quick decisions based on limited information P P C C L
7.2.8 Strives to understand underlying problems, and the reasons for someone’s ongoing or long-term feelings, behaviours, or concerns P P C C L
7.2.9 Objectively presents a balanced view of someone’s specific strengths and weaknesses P P C C L
7.2.10 Is viewed as fully committed to safety, quality and the environment, communicates the project impacts in these domains and influences personnel development to incorporate these values in their own decision making. P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 7.3: Mobilising

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
7.3.1 Shows confidence in the project team P P C C L
7.3.2 Ensures that timely, reliable, and tangible feedback is provided P P C C L
7.3.3 Clearly defines expectations D D C C L
7.3.4 Is trusted and respected by the project team P P C C L
7.3.5 Proactively uses trust as a competitive advantage to reduce transaction cost P P C C L
7.3.6 Motivates the project team both emotionally and professionally P P C C L
7.3.7 Is supportive and caring of the project team and its individual members P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 7.4: Inspiring

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
7.4.1 Generates commitment in individuals and the team P P C C L
7.4.2 Creates a fun and energetic environment that promotes creativity P P C C L
7.4.3 Recognises individual and team performance, even when things go wrong D D C C L
7.4.4 Is focused on bringing out the best in people to achieve their personal stretch goals P P C C L
7.4.5 Empowers and trusts the project team and individuals. Expresses positive expectations of others regarding their abilities or potentials, even in ‘difficult’ cases. Believes others want to and can learn P P C C L
7.4.6 Establishes and leads mentoring and coaching programs P P C C L
7.4.7 Invests extra time and effort over an extended period of time to lead the project team P P C C L
7.4.8 Takes care of the project team, protecting it and its reputation vis-à-vis the larger organisation or community at large. Ensures that the self-realisation and practical needs of the project team are met P P C C L
7.4.9 Uses authority fairly, making a personal effort to treat all team members equitably P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 7.5: Situational leadership

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
7.5.1 Is able to use a range of leadership styles P P C C L
7.5.2 Mostly uses a consultative / participate style P P C C C
7.5.3 Is able to be directive P P C C C
7.5.4 Uses empathetic listening P P C C L
7.5.5 Treats people with respect P P C C L
7.5.6 Links the leadership style to the situation P P C C L
7.5.7 Picks up clues to others’ feelings or meanings, and uses this understanding to explain others’ past behaviours, understand current behaviours, and anticipate future behaviours P P C C L
7.5.8 Informs a person affected by a decision about what is happening, ensuring that the group has all of the necessary information P P C C L

 

ELEMENT 7.6: Communication

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
7.6.1 Is able to use a range of communication styles to match the needs of the situation P P C C L
7.6.2 Is able to establish effective environments where shared meanings amongst stakeholders about situations, the project and organisational processes are achieved P P C C C
7.6.3 Uses storytelling to create a positive and engaging environment for staff and external stakeholders P P C C C
7.6.4 Uses empathetic listening

Uses effective non-verbal communication to reinforce verbal strategies

P P C C L
7.6.5 Uses persuasion effectively to advocate ideas P P C C L
7.6.6 Plans project communication effectively P P C C L
7.6.7 Regularly audits project communication to gauge effectiveness P P C C L

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

7A Leadership Frameworks

 

Directive leadership style 2 2 3 3
Participative leadership style 2 2 3 3
Consultative leadership style 2 2 3 3
Coercive leadership style 2 2 3 3
Impact of using one type of leadership style as the dominant style 2 2 3 3
Complexity leadership theory (CLT) 3 3
Creative tension 2 2 3 3
7B Complementarity

 

Dialectics in each area 2 2 3 3
Empowerment 2 2 3 3
7C Empowerment Expectancy theory and instrumentality 2 2 3 3
Impact on supervisors 2 2 3 3
Team maturity 2 2 3 3
IPTs – maintaining control and alignment 2 2 3 3
Impact of matrix reporting lines 2 2 3 3
National values and their impact on the project 1 1 2 3
7D Values and Trust Espoused vs enacted 1 1 2 3
Walking the talk / visibility 2 2 3 3
Creating symbols and myths 2 2 3 3
Trust 2 2 3 3
Hierarchy of values 1 1 2 3
Communication as transmission and mean-making 2 2 3 3
7E Organisational Maturity Language strategies and shared meaning 2 2 3 3
Impact of language strategies and storytelling 2 2 3 3
Cultural differences in language 2 2 3 3
Empathetic listening 2 2 3 3
Persuasion 2 2 3 3
Communication planning 2 2 3 3
Non-verbal communication 2 2 3 3
Impact of national culture on communication 2 2 3 3
Trustworthiness of information to teams 2 2 3 3
7F Teams/Perceived Communication Reliability Sources of information to teams 2 2 3 3
Using first line supervisors / team leaders as primary sources of information to teams 2 2 3 3
Negotiation and mediation 2 2 3 3
No blame issues resolution
7G Issues Resolution Impact of culture and personality profile 1 1 2 3

VIEW 8: CULTURE AND BEING HUMAN

This view specifies the competencies required to understand culture, cognition, personality, and human lifecycle, and to use them in the design and operation of the project organisation and its systems.

Being human refers to the psychological realities of being human and its impact on how we think, make decisions, and hold memory and values. It also includes issues such as our personality and ageing.

Elements of Competency

8.1  Understand and integrate international cultural differences

8.2  Cultural values (national, organisational, and sub cultures) are used to understand people and are key inputs / drivers in designing the project organisational architecture and change / journey

8.3  Understand the project’s people and stakeholders to use in systems / process design

8.4  Personality profiling to understand people and to design the project organisational architecture and change / journey

8.5  Understand human lifecycle stages to understand people

Underpinning Knowledge

8A  Cognition

8B  How Cultures are Established

8C  How Cultures Evolve / Change

8D  Personality Profiles

8E  Lifecycle Stages

8F  Bounded Rationality

 

ELEMENTS 8.1 : Understand and integrate international cultural differences

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

8.1.1 Analyses cultural composition of stakeholders and key people

D

D P C

L

8.1.2 Designs systems to fit with cultural differences

D

D P C

L

8.1.3 Takes cultural differences into account in all process design, communications and meetings strategies

D

D P C

L

8.1.4 Builds the project cultures on existing national and organisational cultures

D

D P C

L

8.1.5 Takes the culture’s hierarchy of values into consideration when making decisions and in the design of organisational processes

D

D P C L

 

ELEMENTS 8.2: Cultural values (national, organisational, and sub cultures) are used to understand people and are key inputs / drivers in designing the project organisational architecture and change / journey

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

8.2.1 Analyses stakeholder organisational cultures and values

D

D P C

L

8.2.2 Uses organisational culture as a key aspect in selection of contractors / consultants

D

D P C

L

8.2.3 Uses cultural insights as a key aspect of organisational architecture design

D

D P C

L

8.2.4 Recognises and builds in the impact of change/ journey on culture as a key risk / aspect of the strategic plan and how it affects the risk profile of the project

D

D P C

L

8.2.5 Understands that the strategic plan is influenced by the scale / rate of change / leadership style

D

D P C

L

8.2.6 Designs project systems and process to take into consideration organisational culture in their design. Time and cost contingencies are used to deal with cultural differences and uncertainties

D

D P C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

 

ELEMENT 8.3: Understand the project’s people and stakeholders to use in systems / process design

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

8.3.1 Ensures that key people understand themselves, their strengths and their weaknesses, and implements strategies to overcome their weaknesses

P

P C C

L

8.3.2 Ensures strategies are put in place to overcome lack of understanding in key areas

D

D P C

C

8.3.3 Uses complementarity and multiple views to reduce the impact of bounded rationality

D

D P C

L

8.3.4 Ensures processes are designed to avoid group think and individuals dominating

P

P C C

C

8.3.5 Ensures processes are designed to support synergy

D

D P C

C

 

ELEMENT 8.4: Personality profiling to understand people and to design the project organisational architecture and change / journey

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

8.4.1 Ensures that key people understand their own personality profile

D

D P C

L

8.4.2 Uses profiling of key stakeholders

D

D P C

L

8.4.3 Uses profiling in selection of key personnel and in design of teams

D

D P C

L

8.4.4 Takes profiling into consideration in designing the project processes and the change / journey implementation strategy

D

D P C

L

8.4.5 Takes profiling into consideration in selecting the type of information that is provided, how it is provided, and who provides it

D

D P C

L

8.4.6 Establishes development programs to address key individuals and the project’s development needs

P

P C C

L

8.4.7 Understands and uses the hierarchy of needs and culture in designing the project’s reward and communication systems

P

P C C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

 

ELEMENT 8.5: Understand human lifecycle stages to understand people

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

8.5.1 Understands and takes into consideration a person’s lifecycle stage in managing their career

D

D P C

C

8.5.2 Understands and takes into consideration their own lifecycle stage, and structures their career to fit

P

P P C

C

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

8A Cognition How human cognition works 2 2 3 3
How memory works 2 2 2 2
How and where memory is held 2 2 2 2
Stereotyping 2 2 3 3
Cognitive biases 2 2 3 3
Learning strategies – different styles of learning 2 2 3 3
Creativity 1 1 2 3
IQ and EQ 2 2 2 2
8B How Cultures are Established Creating cultures 1 1 2 3
Hierarchy of values 1 1 2 3
Symbols, myths and the management of
meaning
1 1 2 4
Causal links 1 1 2 3
Strength and depth of cultures 1 1 2 3
The importance of leadership in development of cultures 1 1 2 3
8C How Cultures Evolve / Change Building on existing values as a change strategy 1 1 2 3
Resistance to change 1 1 2 4
Impact of (using) crisis in overcoming resistance to change 2 3
Strategies to manage resistance to change 2 4
Management of meaning /symbolism / myths 1 1 2 4
8D Personality Profiles Personality profiling 1 1 2 3
Demographics 1 1 2 3
Impact on career choice and effectiveness 1 1 2 2
Dominant traits, strengths of traits, and developing
strengths in recessive
traits
1 1 2 3
Impact of learning 1 1 2 3
Impact of decision making 2 2 3 3
Impact on leadership 2 2 3 3
Impact on problem solving 1 1 2 3
Emotional Intelligence 1 1 2 3
8E Lifecycle Stages  Lifecycle stages – early development 2 3
Lifecycle stages – teen years 2 2 3 3
Lifecycle stages – adult life 2 3
Male versus female lifecycle stages 2 3
8F Bounded Rationality Bounded rationality (personality, culture,lifecycle, IQ, experience, training, etc), its impact, and strategies to minimise its effects 1 1 2 3
Understanding yourself 3 3 3 3
As others see you – using feedback to better understand yourself 2 2 3 3
Becoming a learning person 2 2 3 3
Hierarchy of needs 1 1 2 3

 

VIEW 9: PROBITY AND GOVERNANCE

This view specifies the competencies required to deliver probity and governance in complex projects.

Elements of Competency

9.1  Establish probity and governance statutory and organisational requirements

9.2  Define project specific probity and governance requirements

9.3  Design probity and governance systems

9.4  Manage ongoing probity and governance

9.5  Designs and Implements contractual instruments

Underpinning Knowledge

9A  Agency Theory

9B  Legislative Probity and Governance requirements

9C  International Governance – linked to National Constitutions

9D  Contract Law

9E  Contract Management

 

ELEMENT 9.1: Establish probity and governance statutory and organisational requirements

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

9.1.1 Defines statutory probity, legal, and governance requirements, e.g. safety and environmental.

P

P P C

C

9.1.2 Defines client probity and governance requirements

D

D P C

C

9.1.3 Defines key stakeholder probity and governance requirements

D

D P

C

C

9.1.4 Defines project ethical standards

P

P C C

C

9.1.5 Recognises that governance requirements will change over the project lifecycle and established process to ensure governance system is Fit for Purpose

D

D P C

C

ELEMENT 9.2: Define project specific probity and governance requirements

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

9.2.1 Defines project specific probity requirements

 

P

P C C

C

9.2.2 Defines project specific legal and governance requirements

P

P C C

C

9.2.3 Uses multiple views to assess risks (across all views) uncertainties and opportunities

P

P P C

C

9.2.4 Establishes event based governance reviews

P

P C C

C

ELEMENT 9.3: Design probity and governance systems

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

9.3.1 Builds the overall understanding of probity and governance requirements, risks and opportunities system

C

C

9.3.2 Reviews how probity and governance requirements can be used to add value to the project

C

C

9.3.3 Incorporates specific project probity and governance issues

C

C

C

9.3.4 Ensures all stakeholders disclose any possible conflict of interest

C

C C C

C

9.3.5 Designs detailed probity and governance system

C

C C C

C

9.3.6 Establishes exit strategies in contracts

P

P C C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

ELEMENT 9.4: Manage ongoing probity and governance

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

9.4.1 Documents and integrates probity and governance into the business plan and integrates it into the overall project architecture

C

C

C

9.4.2 Proactively manages probity and governance over the project lifecycle

C

C

C

9.4.3 Ensures that transparency is embedded in all contracts and systems

C

C

C

9.4.4 Ensures the responsibility for the ongoing operation and review / change of the probity and governance system is clearly defined

C

C

C

9.4.5 Ensures that ongoing compliance and performance audits are carried out, are carried out by both internal and external audit authorities and audits have full and open access

D

D C C

C

9.4.6 Sees audits as opportunities to improve performance and that their recommendations are acted upon

D

D C C

C

9.4.7 Uses conflict resolution, no blame, escalation, and alternative dispute resolution techniques

D

D C C

C

9.4.8 Operates under a code of ethics

C

C C

C

L

9.4.9 Conducts non advocate reviews

C

C C C

L

9.4.10 Analyses and is aware of project ethical frameworks

C

C C C

L

9.4.11 Runs corporate / project boards as chairperson

C

C C C

L

9.4.12 Challenges ethical norms and boundaries

C

C C C

L

9.4.13 Implements systems to align but maintain separate business system architectures between alliance partners

C

C C C

L

9.4.14 Implements check points using external reviewers

C

C C C

L

9.4.15 Uses integrated process teams to manage the ongoing operation and review / change of the probity and governance system

P

P C C

L

Development (D); Practitioner (P); Competent (C); Leader (L)

ELEMENT 9.5: Designs and Implements Contractual Instruments

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

9.5.1 Analyses the project’s political, social, commercial, and legal environment for the overall project including the head contract and the multiple tiers of subcontractors / suppliers

D

P C C

L

9.5.2 Selects preferred contract instruments to fit with project complexity, (alignment motivation, incentives etc.) stakeholder maturity, and contextual issues

D

P C C

L

9.5.3 Establishes contractor selection process, reward design, and journey management process to establish and maintain alignment of behaviours

D

P C C

L

9.5.4 Identifies risks in using preferred contractual instrument and changes / approvals that are required

D

P C C

L

9.5.5 Contextualises preferred contractual instrument and agrees methodology for approvals (across stakeholders and at multiple levels)

D

P C C

L

9.5.6 Ensures key stakeholders are trained in the preferred contractual instrument

D

P C C

L

9.5.7 Plans the negotiation strategy to fit with the cultural norms

D

P C C

L

9.5.8 Establishes an induction process to ensure ongoing contractual understanding

D

P C C

L

9.5.9 Develops incentives and aligns project execution/governance strategy

D

P C C

L

9.5.10 Implements a contract management system that fits with the contractual philosophy and requirements

D

P C C

L

UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge Area

Specific Knowledge and Theories Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Levels 1 & 2

9A Agency Theory Designing the organisational architecture (including the contract) to deliver control, probity and governance, while maintaining flexibility, motivation and responsiveness 2 3
Defining project objectives in terms of outcomes and results versus outputs, and how they will be measured 3 3
Types of coordinating mechanisms 2 2 3 3
Designing the reward system to fit with the project strategy and that satisfies probity / governance requirements 3 3
Designing the motivation system to fit with the project strategy and that satisfies probity / governance requirements 3 3
Designing the empowerment system to fit with the project strategy and probity / governance requirements 3 3
Trust 2 2 3 3
9B Legislative Probity and Governance requirements Understanding and designing project / program governance system to comply with legislative probity and governance requirements 2 2 3 3
Financial regulations 2 2 3 3
Audit reports 2 2 3 3
Central agency requirements and recommended practice 2 2 3 3
Client specific legislation and requirements 2 2 3 3
Defining value for money, fit for purpose, and the risk of doing business 2 2 3 3
9C International Governance – linked to National Constitutions Takes international governance (linked to national constitutions) as an input in project organisational architecture and contract selection and operation 2 3
International constitutions and their impact on governance 2 3
International constitutions and their impact on organisational design 2 3
9D Contract Law Advanced contract law – using the contract proactively to deliver project outcomes. 2 2 3 3
 Key legal issues and areas – good faith, equitable estoppel, intellectual property, moral rights, employment and industrial relations, insurance, corporate, standing, remedies, and administrative law 2 2 3 3
Relational contracting – the key principles of relational contracting and their application across project delivery methodologies. The contract as a living document that drives process governance. 2 2 3 3
Alliance contracts – the structure and operation of alliance contracts. Different approaches to alliance contracts. 3 3
PPP and PFI contracts 2 2 3 3
Contracts – traditional, EPC, EPCM, design and construct, design construct and maintain, alliancing, partnering, emergent acquisition, and consultant contracts 2 2 3 3
9E Contract Management  Client expectations of staff in managing contracts in a way that addresses both government accountability requirements and commercial considerations. 2 2 3 3
The bidding process for contracts – cost of bidding, timing, tactics, marketing, and promotion strategies. 2 2 3 4
Negotiating for results – key elements and practice in commercial negotiations, negotiation strategies, negotiation risk, use of commercial language, communication skills, convergence, negotiating for the best results. 3 3 3 4
Managing contracts effectively and the fundamental importance of scheduling – beyond compliance to performance management and performance improvement. 3 3 3 4
Expression of Interest design and operation 2 2 3 4
Request for Proposal design and operation 2 2 3 4
No blame and alternative dispute resolution 2 2 3 4

10: SPECIAL ATTRIBUTES

This section specifies the personal attributes that distinguish complex project managers.

Special Attributes

10.1  Wisdom

10.2  Action and Outcome Oriented

10.3  Creates and Leads Innovative Teams

10.4  Focused and Courageous

10.5  Ability to Influence

Each Special Attribute consists of multiple individual attributes. The required level of behaviour is specified for each individual attribute.

These standards define the extent to which each project manager category exhibits each Special Attribute, according to four levels:

Experiential (EL) Learning:

the project manager uses their behaviours experientially in developing the special attribute

Normative: (N)

the project manager is recognised as using the special attribute as normal behaviour

Mentor: (M)

the project manager mentors others in their use of the special attribute

Symbol: (S)

the project manager is regarded as providing a symbol for the special attribute through their behaviours, and leads the development of the special attribute in their project teams

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE 10.1: Wisdom

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

10.1.1 Has a robust self-esteem

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.2 Is a learning person – seeks opportunities to grow and change

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.3 Is a thinking person and reflective practitioner

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.4 Is not overly defensive -is able to keep their cool, conceal frustration – is willing to admit own mistakes

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.5 Recognises that the client may not always be right in their judgement, but they are always the client

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.6 Knows how to take time out

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.7 Manages their own time

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.8 Demonstrates critical inquiry

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.9 Constantly questions everything that they are doing -is alert for the first hint of error

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.10 Is adept at networking, seeks and is open to diverse perspectives and takes counsel

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.11 Mentors key individuals

EL

EL N M

S

10.1.12 Mentors potential future complex project managers

EL

EL N M

S

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE 10.2: Action and Outcome Oriented

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

10.2.1 Has a taking charge attitude – has an all- consuming need to exceed goals and to bring out the best in others

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.2 Has an holistic vision – is driven by an holistic vision of the project outcomes

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.3 Has high energy – gives energy to those around them

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.4 Enjoys the journey

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.5 Sees issues as opportunities

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.6 Is goal and outcomes driven

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.7 Knows that there are no perfect solutions to most problems.

Finds good solutions to most problems, failing that, is able to force an acceptable solution so that they can continue the journey towards the desired project outcome

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.8 Is perceptive to very faint signals that everything is not right before it is visible to others, and takes action

EL

EL N

M

S
10.2.9 Gets out personally to see for oneself – is a participant not just a watcher

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.10 Is accessible and communicates with all levels in the organisation/project (inclusivity) – people know that they can rely on you

EL

EL

N

M

S

10.2.11 Ensures that the ends are not justifying any means

EL

EL N M

S

10.2.12 Sensitivity to time – not letting activities run longer

EL

EL N M

S

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE 10.3: Creates and Leads Innovative Teams

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

10.3.1 Focuses on innovation

EL

EL N M

S

10.3.2 Builds strong relationships

EL

EL N M

S

10.3.3 Has a highly visible ability to handle interpersonal relationships with the client, their own team, their management and staff, and external stakeholders

EL

EL N M

S

10.3.4 Establishes and leads creative groups

EL

EL N M

S

10.3.5 Recognises own limitations. Others recognise that you recognise your own limitations

EL

EL

N

M

S

10.3.6 Attracts and recruits appropriate skills as necessary. Makes sure that the appropriate depth and breadth of skills (domain knowledge) exist in the team at the right levels

EL

EL N M

S

10.3.7 Creates strong team identification

EL

EL N

M

S

10.3.8 Is inquisitive and curious

EL

EL N M

S

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE 10.4: Focused and Courageous

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1

Level 2

10.4.1 Is an achiever who is outcomes driven – gets results through their ability to plan and organise for execution by and through the total organisation

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.2 Is proactive, not reactive. Identifies and recognises a problem in its infancy, recognises the potential for a problem long before its inception, and takes steps to prevent it from happening

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.3 Deals successfully with many diverse issues concurrently

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.4 Remains focused regardless of setbacks

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.5 Is willing to take calculated risks

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.6 Takes the hard decisions

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.7 Turns threats into opportunities

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.8 Is visible and leads from the front, while delegating

EL

EL N

M

S
10.4.9 Has a sense of ownership of the project

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.10 Has a long term perspective

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.11 Is assertive and uses situational leadership

EL

EL N M

S

10.4.12 Is prepared to lose the occasional battle – concedes unimportant issues gracefully EL EL N M S
10.4.13 Defends their position and trusts their judgment on matters of importance EL EL N M S
10.4.14 Asks probing questions to get at the root cause of a situation or a problem EL EL N M S
10.4.15 Triage – fixes problems, but recognises which things you are going to let die off EL EL N M S

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTE 10.5: Ability to Influence

ACTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE Traditional ExecPM Complex
Project Manager Snr Project Manager  

Program Manager

Level 1 Level 2
10.5.1 Is politically astute EL EL N M S
10.5.2 Knows that relationship development is not just management EL EL N M S
10.5.3 Has environmental sensitivity EL EL N M S
10.5.4 Exerts strategic influence EL EL N M S
10.5.5 Establishes good relationships and a sense of trust – dedicates significant effort to relationships and ensures every action is consistent with the principles of the relationship EL EL N M S
10.5.6 Understands the problems of counterparts – regardless of the circumstances, puts aside problems and displays empathy EL EL N M S
10.5.7 Protects their sphere of activities, and respects the sphere of influence of their peer group EL EL N M S
10.5.8 Conducts complex negotiations successfully EL EL N M S
10.5.9 Mentors and guides project managers in their development EL EL N M S
10.5.10 Takes multiple step actions to persuade, including careful preparation of data, and provides different options in a presentation or discussion EL EL N M S
10.5.11 Adapts presentations or discussions to better fit the environment or setting of the presentation or meeting EL EL N M S
10.5.12 Uses experts or third parties to influence or persuade others to support one’s actions, or to have a specific impact on the actions of other stakeholders involved in the situation EL EL N M S
10.5.13 Has a personal presence and demeanour EL EL N M S
10.5.14 Uses a civil tone and socially acceptable language EL EL N M S
10.5.15 Draws out issues and uses advocacy EL EL N M S
10.5.16 Keeps the project funded EL EL N M S

Experiential Learning (EL); Normative (N); Mentor (M); Symbol (S)

Categories:

Section 2

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS

These standards were initially developed in Australia in 2005 and reviewed at a high-level workshop by representatives from the Australian Department of Defence’s Defence Materiel Organisation, the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) and leading multi-national defence contractors. The final draft was approved by the Defence and Industry PM Council in June 2006.

The Defence Materiel Organisation owns the Standards and the International Centre for Complex Project Management is responsible for their periodic review and update in consultation with the international complex project management community.

HOW TO READ THE STANDARDS

Traditional approaches to competency standards have used a reductionist approach that deconstructs roles down into units, elements, underpinning knowledge and actions in the workplace as the assessment criteria.

These standards move away from traditional philosophies, approaches and languages, which cannot adequately describe complex projects. Instead these standards use a Systems Thinking philosophical approach and methodology, based upon the premise that you cannot understand a whole through analysing its parts:

  • Views provide insights from multiple perspectives, that together provide holistic understanding
  • a holistic understanding of the competencies required for the project management of complexity, and the assessment of individuals against those competencies, can only be achieved through using multiple Views
  • behaviours are complex sets of interactions arising from cognitive and emotional responses to dynamic conditions. While specific behaviours are described in the standards, their source and effect are neither simple nor prescribed. It is in these complex interactions across multiple set of behaviours that competency is achieved. Behavioural flexibility and differentiation to suit the situation are measures of success.

The methodologies used in this standard draw upon both positivist and anti-positivist methodologies for analysis and assessment, with a strong focus on both action learning and the use of tools including rich pictures, metaphors, tests (including cause-and-effect modelling and scenario strategy development), personality profiling, and workshops.

VIEWS

The complexity of defining complex project manager competencies means that such competencies cannot be assessed against role descriptions using a traditional reductionist approach.

These standards apportion the role description of complex project managers across nine Views:

View 1 – Systems Thinking and Integration
View 2 – Strategy and Project Management
View 3 – Business Planning, Lifecycle Management, Reporting and Performance Measurement

View 4 – Change and Journey

View 5 – Innovation, Creativity and Working Smarter View 6 – Organisational Architecture

View 7 – Leadership and Communication
View 8 – Culture and Being Human

View 9 – Probity and Governance

Each View is structured to reflect distinct competencies that are relevant to project management practitioners. The Views represent multiple perspectives that may conflict with each other. The montaging of multiple Views permits a holistic understanding of the system in which complex project managers operate.

Each View has its key Underpinning Knowledge areas listed. For each Underpinning Knowledge area, the Specific Knowledge and Theories are then listed, and the required depth of knowledge specified.

Each View is internally consistent, and is decomposed into Elements of Competency that describe more specifically the observable and assessable behaviours (Actions in the Workplace) particular to that View. For each Action in the Workplace, these standards define the level of competency required for each project manager classification.

LEVEL OF COMPETENCY

These standards classify project managers into the following competency-based categories:

  • Traditional project management (including Project Manager and Senior Project Manager roles)
  • Executive project management (including Program Manager and Program Manager roles)
  • Complex project management (defining equivalent levels for CPM Level 2 and CPM Level 1).

For each Action in the Workplace, these standards define the appropriate levels of competency required by each project manager category. Actions in Workplace are assessed against four levels:

Development: (D)

applies the competency under direct supervision.

Practitioner: (P)

applies the competency without the need for direct supervision, but within the bounds of standardised processes, procedures and systems.

Competent: (C)

applies the competency without the need for direct supervision, provides direct supervision of the competency for others, and mentors development of the competency in others.

Leader: (L)

provides professional leadership in the competency. They are a recognised leader in the design of processes, procedures and systems, and have the ability to use the competency flexibly and creatively.

LEVEL OF UNDERPINNING KNOWLEDGE

Underpinning knowledge enables project managers to respond adaptively and flexibly to their changing environment using a first principles approach. A strong underpinning knowledge enables the complex project manager to move away from using competencies rigidly or restrictively, to applying them on a contingency basis where each project strategy and organisational architecture is tailored to fit appropriately within that particular project’s lifecycle.

For each View, these standards define the appropriate level of underpinning knowledge required by each project manager category. The level of underpinning knowledge is assessed against four levels:

  1. Awareness
  2. Understands Concepts
  3. Understands Theoretical Foundations
  4. Expert

Since both Level 2 and Level 1 CPMs are responsible for leading complex projects, it is appropriate that these categories of project manager require the same level of underpinning knowledge of each View. The defining difference between Level 2 CPMs and Level 1 CPMs is depth and breadth of experience.

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTES

There are five special attributes:

  • Wisdom
  • Action and outcome orientated
  • Creates and leads innovative teams
  • Focused and courageous
  • Ability to influence.

Each Special Attribute consists of multiple individual attributes. The required level of behaviour is specified for each individual attribute.

These standards define the extent to which each project manager category exhibits each Special Attribute, according to four levels:

Experiential (EL) Learning:

the project manager uses their behaviours experientially in developing the special attribute

Normative: (N)

the project manager is recognised as using the special attribute as normal behaviour

Mentor: (M)

the project manager mentors others in their use of the special attribute

Symbol: (S)

the project manager is regarded as providing a symbol for the special attribute through their behaviours, and leads the development of the special attribute in their project teams

DEFINITIONS

Anti-positivist A philosophical position where certainty and facts are accepted only as useful constructs, and there is no such thing as a theory describing reality.
Architecture (System)

 

Functional, physical, and operational systems design that satisfies strategic whole of life and operational concepts and outcomes, from which flows the concept design and the development of component level requirements
Bounded rationality We are all limited in our understanding of others through our personality, culture, upbringing and experience.
Performance measurement Multiple Views are used in measuring performance. The performance measures are layered and tangible.
Change management The implementation of strategy and change.
Chaos Dynamic systems characterised by non-linear and recursive activities.
Complementarity A dialectic is established where a leader’s individuals strengths / weaknesses are matched with a person who has equal strengths in the opposite pole.
Complexity

 

Complex projects are characterised by a degree of disorder, instability, emergence, non-linearity, recursiveness, uncertainty, irregularity and randomness, and dynamic complexity where the parts in a system can react / interact with each other in different ways.
Dialectic There is strength in both aspects, for example strategy / planned versus opportunistic. There is not a bias towards one aspect, nor is there a balance which delivers mediocrity.
Discovery planning A structured up front process that is based on systems thinking, client needs determination, systems engineering to develop the project architecture, concept design, and implementation plan to reduce uncertainty in project scope.
Double loop learning A formal process where the basis upon which decisions were originally made are periodically reviewed. Double loop learning assumes that as we change a system, so we change.
Emergence Systems function as a whole, so they have properties above and beyond the properties of the parts that comprise them. These are known as emergent properties, and they emerge from the system whilst in operation. You cannot predict the behaviour of an emergent system from studying its individual parts.
Gateway A formal process where external reviewers conduct lifecycle phase reviews of a project. The external reviewers must be experienced in similar projects. The Gateway process is recursive and continually revalidates the project against its changing strategy and business case. The Gateway process was initially developed by the UK Office of Government Commerce.
Governance The implementation of policy and strategy that flows through all aspects of a system. Governance ensures that alignment, transparency, fit for purpose, and value for money are maintained throughout the implementation of the emergent strategy.
Governance contracting A strategic form of relational contracting for use on projects with high levels of complexity, where the emergent strategy requires double loop learning.
Holism Understanding is only achieved though looking at a system / project through multiple and divergent views.
Integrated Process Team (IPT) An integrated team from the project stakeholders is established to implement a specific process, using the best person for the job and shared systems.
Journey management Complex projects have emergent strategies, and follow a journey towards their strategic vision. The journey is often uncertain. Journey management is the system through which the journey is managed.
Knowledge management A system to collect, sort and distribute knowledge.
Layering Strategic objectives and performance measures are flowed down through the project to ensure their tangibility and ownership.
Lifecycle management The project lifecycle commences with strategy and client’s needs determination, and includes implementation, ongoing change and support, and project replacement / transition.
Maturity Individuals and organisations vary in their ability to work in relational contracts, to take an asset management responsibility, and in what they consider to be uncertain.
Metaphors A view, word, or phrase used to describe something in an alternative and abstract way. Using metaphors enables insights which aid in gaining understanding and help deal with bounded rationality.
Modular Change occurs at three scales: incremental; modular; and revolutionary. Modular change is when change occurs in sections / units as an ongoing strategy.
Montaging The integration of multiple views.
Obligations to the community Responsibilities to the community that transcend specific project objectives. For example, cultural, social, environment, quality of life.
Organisational architecture The overall organisational / project design, including structure, culture, technology, and context.
Population ecology In many cases organisations do not change, but are replaced by other organisations that are better suited to the new environment.
Positivist A philosophical position where theories and facts are accepted as being real.
Project These standards focus upon complex projects, programs and portfolios. To provide parsimony and provide clarity, the term project is used to refer collectively to ‘projects, programs and portfolios’.
Public Finance Initiatives (PFI) Projects financed using private financial sources. For example, build, own, operate and transfer (BOOT) projects.
Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Relational contracts where the public client and the private sector work together using alliancing or governance contracting towards shared objectives. PPP contracts use performance-based reward system, and are strategically driven.
Punctuated equilibrium As normal science exhibits problems in describing anomalies, pressure builds until a revolution takes place with an innovative new theory becoming the new accepted normal science.
Relational contracting Contracts using alignment, integrated process teams, transparency, and a layered performance based reward system that is linked to the project’s lifecycle outcomes.
Rich pictures Using a graphical mind map to increase understanding through montaging multiple views.
Sustainability An architectural property of a project which enables: its continued viability; the project to coexist in the supra system; and an ongoing process of development or redevelopment; all without either system being damaged;
System A system is a number of parts acting as a single entity, functioning as a whole through the interaction of its parts. A key aspect of systems is that if you change one part of a system, you in fact change the whole system
System of Systems A set or arrangement of systems that results when independent and useful systems are integrated into a larger system that delivers unique capabilities. Planning, analysing, organizing, and integrating the capabilities of a mix of existing and new systems into a SoS capability greater than the sum of the capabilities of the constituent parts.
Systems Thinking Studies the whole in order to understand the parts, by looking at the whole, and the parts, and the relationship between the parts. It is the opposite of reductionism – the idea that something is simply the sum of its parts. A collection of parts that do not connect is not a system, it is a heap. Systems Engineering is a subset of Systems Thinking.
Tangible To motivate individuals, the objectives must be understandable and controllable at the individual level.
Uncertainty The degree to which the project’s scope and implementation are unclear to its stakeholders. Uncertainty is relative – what is uncertain to one person, may be certain to another person possessing a higher level of maturity.
Views Looking at a problem / issue through a particular lens or paradigm.
Wave Planning In complex projects the planning process is usually recursive and non-linear, rather than linear. Wave Planning plots nodal points for gathering information, design and implementation, allowing non-linear and recursive patterns to be portrayed in a linear model.
Whole of Life Management The project scope covers the whole project life cycle. It commences at the initial idea / need, and includes system thinking, architecture, concept, implementation, testing, verification and commissioning, operation, sustainability and journey management, routine and major periodic maintenance, facilities and asset management, logistic support, incremental and modular upgrades, and disposal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE

VIEW 4: Change and Journey

ELEMENT 4.8: Establish a stakeholder management strategy and plan

Categories:

Section 1

COMPLEXITY AND PROJECT TYPOLOGY

Projects can be classified according to their certainty in both scope (WHAT) and delivery methodology (HOW):

Complex projects are open, emergent and adaptive systems that are characterised by recursiveness and non-linear feedback loops. Their sensitivity to small differences in initial conditions significantly inhibits detailed long-term planning for these projects, and their implementation is a dynamic process.

Complex projects:

  • are usually adaptive systems of systems;
  • have high uncertainty in scope definition;
  • are distributed;
  • have ongoing environmental and internal turbulence;
  • are implemented through wave planning; and
  • are unable to be decomposed to elements with clearly defined boundaries.Project management is a continuum: at one node is traditional project management, with its philosophy, organisational architecture, methodology, tool set and contracts all firmly based upon the expectation of relatively stable conditions and certainty; at the other node is complex project management, with its philosophy, organisational architecture, methodology, tool set and contracts all firmly based upon uncertainty and complexity.The intersection between traditional and complex project management is a class point on this continuum called executive project management, where the project manager is highly competent in traditional project management, has an awareness of the complex project management paradigm, and has developed competences in a range of the complex project management competencies.Applying traditional project management approaches to complex projects is counterproductive. The focus of traditional project management on detailed long-term planning, rigid structures, precise work breakdown structure definition and elaborate control rules will drive complex projects towards failure.Although the specific path followed by the behaviour of complex systems is chaotic, there are underlying patterns. The ability (competence) to understand and proactively deal with these patterns is what distinguishes complex, executive and traditional project managers.

PROJECTS AS SYSTEMS

Project management as a profession is presently debating the suitability of existing vocationally-based project management bodies of knowledge, methodologies and tools, and their relevance to complex projects. Other management disciplines, such as Systems Thinking, have faced similar challenges and provide insights that are useful for project management. Systems Thinking parallels project management in many ways, being largely project-based, and having encompassed complexity.

Systems Thinking originated and developed during the early 1960s, and its dominant methodologies were built upon the scientific method. In a traditional positivist paradigm each system is broken down into its components, each component is analysed in detail, and facts are established – there usually being only one acceptable fact for each issue. Throughout its development as a discipline, Systems Thinking has faced similar problems of project complexity to those currently being faced by project management. During this period, Systems Thinking has developed a typology which enables practitioners to select the appropriate philosophy, methodology, and tool set for a particular project.

The Systems Thinking typologies represent a continuum of views and frameworks based on specific metaphors that are used as useful constructs to provide insights into different types of projects: at one end are traditional positivist approaches, and at the other are anti-positivist approaches. The anti-positivist approach to Systems Thinking shall be referred to as complex Systems Thinking. A key aspect of this contingency approach is that, depending upon a project’s level of complexity, different Systems Thinking methodologies should be used.

By viewing a problem using multiple metaphors and dialectics, a better and more practical understanding is obtained. Traditional positivist Systems Thinking (including Systems Engineering) focuses upon the rationality of certainty and prediction driven empirical observation, whilst complex Systems Thinking systems approaches use multiple perspectives and dialectics to make sense of projects. Through complex Systems Thinking, an issue and/or system is looked at from multiple perspectives (views) using metaphors and dialectics. Dialectics provide nodal points through which to analyse equally strong and opposing positions within a single area. Whilst using a single node of analysis within an area significantly increases depth in understanding, using multiple dialectic foci across multiple areas provide both breadth and depth in understanding.

As with Systems Thinking, project management must be capable of dealing holistically with the project – that is, approaching the project in context, rather than in isolation from its environment. Most projects operate within larger systems, and in fact represent systems themselves being comprised of multiple smaller but interconnected systems.

This approach is being reflected internationally, with clients’ expectations from projects now moving away from inputs and outputs, towards a focus upon project outcomes, results and benefits realisation. These changes, along with increasing environmental uncertainty, are driving project management to not only view the project as a system with internal subsystems, but also just as importantly to view the project itself as part of a much larger system. Achieving this holistic view requires project management to use a new way of thinking. Traditional positivist project management methodologies and tools logically break down projects, organisations and issues into their constituent parts, analyse those parts, and then re-assemble them. This logical approach is significantly limited by its failure to address the interaction, interdependence of and synergy between constituent parts. The interaction and synergy between the elements within a system, and the interaction of that system with its environment, are the critical issues – not how the parts of that system operate in isolation. As with Systems Thinking, the complexity and uncertainty of many projects necessitates the use of anti-positivist project management methodologies and tools that use multiple perspectives and metaphors.

A systems view of projects provides a powerful tool for establishing a philosophical understanding of projects. The subsystems and processes comprising a system can only be understood in terms of their relationship with: each other; the system as a whole; and the system as part of a larger system. Understanding a system therefore requires an understanding of those relationships.

PROJECT STRATEGIES

There are four contenders operating in the project management space – general management (GM), traditional project management (TPM), systems thinking (ST) including systems engineering (SE), and complex project management (CPM).

GENERAL MANAGEMENT

In many ways general management and traditional project management have developed concurrently, and they possess similar approaches to certainty. General management is based upon the machine metaphor, and focuses on ongoing organisations. Organisational architecture, business process, long range planning, and even new tools such as six-sigma are based upon project stability and certainty. Over the past decade, the failure of strategic planning and the increased rate of environmental change have brought these assumptions of certainty under increasing pressure. In response, whilst still maintaining its philosophical foundations in certainty, general management has moved to stress the importance of leadership, emotional intelligence, empowerment, communication, alignment, and teams in providing flexibility and responsiveness. Traditional project management has followed general management, and has incorporated similar criteria into traditional project management competency standards. The concurrent development of general management and traditional project management in response to these changes has established a significant overlap between traditional project management and general management. However, it is equally clear that general management has not embraced either systems engineering or systems thinking.

TRADITIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Traditional project management is based upon relative project certainty – certainty in both the project scope, and in respect to the project context (environment). Traditional project management was initially based upon three outcomes – time, cost and quality – with trade-offs being made between them. Traditional project management’s toolset has since expanded to now include nine tools with matching sets of competency standards – integration, scope, time, cost, quality, risk, human resources, communication and procurement. Continuing high incidents of project failure have led to an international movement to expand traditional project management competencies, by including general management. These changes are designed to enable traditional project management to:

  • overcome the increasing failure rate of traditional project management in projects with scope certainty that are implemented in uncertain environments; and
  • overcome the adversarial nature of the traditional project management paradigm

Traditional project management’s new competency areas include a range of business and soft competencies, and have blurred the boundaries between traditional project management and general management. Similar to general management, changes to traditional project management have also failed to adopt systems engineering and systems thinking.

SYSTEMS THINKING

As with general management, systems thinking was initially focused upon project certainty and built on the machine metaphor as a way to understand how projects operate. However, unlike project management and general management, systems thinking has developed a contingency approach that includes a continuum of approaches: at one node is systems engineering, which is based upon certainty and alignment in the environment; and at the other node are approaches based upon recognition of the uncertainty, and the nature of power dynamic environments. Unlike general management’s strategic and long range planning, systems thinking’s continuum of approaches to gain understanding of systems has proven to deliver effective planning tools in both closed and open systems.

Systems thinking remains focused on developing systems engineering tool sets. It has accepted the philosophical differences required to operate at the two nodal points on its tools continuum – a positivist philosophy at the certainty / alignment node; and an anti-positivist philosophy at the uncertain / coercive node. Systems thinking offers a contingency based interpretive and critical framework for understanding the dynamics of large scale projects.

COMPLEX PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Unlike project management, general management and systems thinking, which have evolved through attempts at improving performance, complex project management was specifically developed to be philosophically based upon uncertainty and emergent environments. Although complex project management uses project management as an entry gateway, its competency framework, underpinning knowledge and tools are built upon a broad range of other disciplines which deal with various aspects of complexity. Complex project management has nine views which define behaviours of complex project managers in the workplace, each of which operates as a continuum with a TPM/GM node and a complex project management node. The key differences between traditional project management and complex project management are their underlying assumptions and philosophies.

TPM/GM

ExecPM

CPM

Scope

Clear

Traditional Projects

Clear

Complicated Projects

Unclear, Change & Chaos

Complex Projects

Environment

Stable

Political

Political and Emergent

Philosophical Base (Paradigm)

Certainty

Certainty & Pluralism

Pluralism, Uncertainty, Change & Chaos

Training / Education

Vocational

Tertiary

Tertiary

The philosophical differences between TPM/GM, ExecPM and complex project management are highlighted by the differing approaches they use to integrate their respective functions and views. Both TPM/GM and ExecPM use a systems engineering decomposition process to develop their base elements, and then a progressive rebuild process to integrate those base elements. These processes assume that integration occurs primarily during the early phases of the project lifecycle, with the ExecPM project manager acting as a boundary manager to protect the project’s core from external change.

By way of contrast, in complex project management, such decomposition alone cannot be used as the overall scope cannot be fully defined: even in circumstances where the scope can be generally defined, any such decomposition will be invalidated by ongoing change. The systems engineering decomposition process ‘freezes’ the project scope and stops emergence. This ‘freezing’ is particularly an issue in System of Systems projects, and may be addressed by either a modular architecture that significantly reduces the impact of decomposition upon emergence, or developing a vertically and horizontally integrated project solution. Instead of decomposition into base elements and a rebuild using staged integration, complex project management uses a systems thinking approach with multiple views to provide a holistic understanding of the project.

As technology and the environment change quickly, technologies of systems engineering are not sufficient, and must be augmented and/or replaced. This is because traditional project management and systems engineering focuses on boundable problems for which optimal solutions can be found. In complex project management we are dealing with unboundable problems.

Complex project management uses traditional project management to deliver short term projects where there is scope certainty (boundable problems); wave planning to deliver projects with uncertain scope (unboundable problems); and double loop learning to periodically reframe the project.

PROJECT CATEGORISATION FRAMEWORK (PCAT)

The following Project Categorisation Framework (PCAT) provides one gateway point method at project inception to: categorise projects by their systems type; determine the appropriate project strategy and contract; and select appropriately competent project managers.

PCAT categorises projects into five types:

  • Traditional Projects:
  • Complicated Projects:
  • Complex Projects:

PCAT types 5 and 4 PCAT type 3
PCAT types 2 and 1

PCAT provides a structured methodology to select appropriately competent project managers:

PCAT Type

Project Description

IPMA Level

Project Management Competency

CPM Level

PCAT 1

Highly complex project

Complex Project Management (CPM)

Level 1

PCAT 2

Complex project

Complex Project Management (CPM)

Level 2

PCAT 3

Traditional project within a highly political environment

Level A

Executive Project Management (ExecPM)

PCAT 4

Traditional project

Level B

Traditional Project Management (TPM)

PCAT 5

Minor works

Levels C

Minor works project management

Project Team Member

Level D

PCAT uses the following assessment criteria to categorise projects:

Assessment Criteria

A

Level of Emergence

The project is a journey driven by a vision. There is high uncertainty in scope definition. Systems function as a whole, so they have properties above and beyond the properties of the parts that comprise them. These are known as emergent properties, and they emerge from the system whilst in operation. You cannot predict the behaviour of an emergent system from studying its individual parts. The level of emergence is a measure of the:

  •   scale of strategic change
  •   depth of cultural change
  •   level of technical emergence in the project.

B

Internal System Complexity

Project Team Complexity – is a measure of the complexity of the internal architecture of the project team, and the maturity of the project team in this type of project.

Technical Difficulty – is a measure of the novelty of the project, and inherent complexities that arise from technical undertakings such as conflicting user requirements, integration with supra system, project architecture, design and development, assembly, technical emergence, incremental/modular builds,

integration, and test and acceptance

Commercial – the level of usage of relational performance based, phased, and layered incentive driven contracting arrangements, and the complexity of the commercial arrangements being managed, including the number and level

of interdependent commercial arrangements.

C

External System Complexity

Stakeholder Complexity –

Schedule Complexity –

Life Cycle –

is a measure of the complexity of the project’s stakeholder relationships. It includes the number of stakeholders, the level of alignment versus pluralism, cultural diversity, and geographic dispersal

is a measure of the inherent complexity arising from schedule pressures on the project. The project is delivered using Wave Planning, and is subject to competing and conflicting priorities

is a measure of uncertainty arising from the maturity of the project delivery organization, and the environmental maturity within which the project will be operated, supported and sustained.

D

Project Cost

Includes requirements development (empirically 6-10% of acquisition cost) and through life operating, maintenance and support costs, asset management and periodic upgrading (empirically 3- 4 times acquisition cost).

Methodology for PCAT Criteria Assessment
EMERGENCE

Emergence is a measure of the scale of emergence in the overall project /program. Emergence is measured against three criteria:

  • scale of strategic change
  • depth of cultural change, and
  • level of technical emergence.

First, each of the three criteria of emergence is classified as having either:

  • very high emergence        score 4
  • high emergence                score 3
  • moderate emergence      score 2
  • low emergence                 score 0

and the three criteria scores are added to give a total score for emergence

Using this total score, the overall emergence of the project/program is then classified using the following grades:

  • High emergence              score between 6 and 12
  • Moderate emergence     score between 4 and 6
  • Low emergence               score between 0 and 4
INTERNAL SYSTEM COMPLEXITY

Internal system complexity is a measure of internal system complexity in the overall project /program. Internal system complexity is measured against three criteria:

  • project team complexity
  • technical difficulty, and
  • commercial complexity.First, each of the three criteria of internal system complexity is classified as having either:
  • very high internal system complexity       score 4
  • high internal system complexity               score 3
  • moderate internal system complexity      score 2
  • low internal system complexity                 score 0

and the three criteria scores are added to give a total score for internal system complexity.

Using this total score, the overall internal system complexity of the project / program is then classified using the following grades:

  • High internal system complexity              score between 6 and 12
  • Moderate internal system complexity     score between 4 and 6
  • Low internal system complexity               score between 0 and 4
EXTERNAL SYSTEM COMPLEXITY

External system complexity is a measure of external system complexity in the overall project /program. External system complexity is measured against three criteria:

  • stakeholder complexity;
  • schedule complexity; and
  • life cycle complexity.First, each of the three criteria of external system complexity is classified as having either:
  • very high external system complexity        score 4
  • high external system complexity                 score 3
  • moderate external system complexity        score 2
  • low external system complexity                   score 0

and the three criteria scores are added to give a total score for external system complexity

Using this total score, the overall external system complexity of the project / program is then classified using the following grades:

  • High external system complexity                  score between 6 and 12
  • Moderate external system complexity         score between 4 and 6
  • Low external system complexity                   score between 0 and 4
PCAT CATEGORISATION

Projects are categorised by inserting grades for each of the three criteria into the following table:

PCAT

Emergence

Internal system Complexity

External system Complexity

Cost (Euros)

1

If at least two criteria are graded as high

> 2.0 b

2

If at least two criteria are graded as high

> 1.0 but < 2.0 b

3

At least two criteria grades are graded as moderate or higher

Programs > 100m, Projects > 500m

4

No more than one criteria is graded as moderate or higher

> 20m, but < 500m

5

All criteria are graded as low

< 20m

 

PROJECT MANAGER COMPETENCIES

For some, recognition as a complex project manager represents the pinnacle of the project manager career pathway. In moving along the continuum from traditional project management to complex project management, there is a progressive building of competencies – that is, complex project management includes all the traditional project management competencies (including Program and Portfolio Management). The cusp / transition area between the two philosophies (ExecPM) highlights the differences between traditional project management and complex project management:

This document provides a certification model for Executive Project Managers or Complex Project Managers should organisations choose to include CPM in their PM certification framework.

The model requires a candidate to satisfy the following requirements:

  • Proven competence in TPM, ST, and GM: the initial gateway for a complex project manager is proven competence in TPM, ST, and GM, since most complex projects include subprojects which are PCAT 3, 4, or 5
  • Possessing the Special Attributes (at the appropriate level), and an ability to work in both certainty and complexity based paradigms
  • Proven underpinning knowledge for each of the nine Views – representing distinct actions in the workplace (at the appropriate level)
  • Proven competence in each of those nine Views (at the appropriate level).

These CPM competency standards are fundamentally different to TPM competency standards – whilst TPM competency standards are structured for operational management and technical training, these standards are structured for executive / strategic management and tertiary education.

In particular, these CPM competency standards:

  • are based upon a complexity / uncertainty and emergence-based paradigm
  • use multiple views and dialectics to define behaviours that together provide insight and understanding
  • require a substantial level of underpinning knowledge
  • rely on an understanding of the business mindset needed to achieve project outcomes
  • define required special attributes.

Complex Project Management Paradigm (Mindset)

The project management mindset drives:

  • the design of the strategic approach to deliver the project
  • the selection of the contracting model
  • the criteria and process to select the project manager, project team, and the contractor
  • the tool set to be used in planning and delivering the project.

The decisions made for these issues significantly varies, dependent upon whether the TPM or CPM mindset is applied. TPM’s certainty-based philosophy (mindset) assumes relative certainty and stability as the normative condition. In contrast, the CPM mindset assumes uncertainty, change and emergence as the normative condition. A CPM mindset enables a complex project manager to comfortably understand and proactively deal with complex projects. Without a complex project paradigm, a traditional project manager will inevitably look to decomposition as their base assumption. There are five key influences which shape the mindset of a complex project manager:

  • Uncertainty
  • Inherent Complexity
  • Chaos
  • Emergence
  • Double Loop Learning.

Multiple views and dialectics define behaviours

These CPM competency standards define the behaviours in the workplace for executive project managers and complex project managers, according to nine distinct Views: Strategy; Business Planning; Change; Innovation; Organisational Architecture; Systems; Leadership; Culture; and Governance. Seen through the CPM paradigm, the Views provide insights into a project from nine perspectives. Although Systems (including Systems Thinking) and Change (including Journey Management) represent the core Views, it is only through viewing a project through each of the nine Views, that a holistic understanding of the project is achieved.

Underpinning Knowledge

Unlike TPM where underpinning knowledge is a minor factor in competency assessment, underpinning knowledge plays a significant role in the competency assessment of Complex (and Executive) project managers. Complex (and Executive) project managers require a deep and broad underpinning knowledge:

  • Complex (and Executive) project managers must be competent across a broad range of areas, and correspondingly require a significant breadth of knowledge. The CPM competency standards draws its theoretical base from a broad range of literatures, and the depth of underpinning knowledge it requires is moderated through four levels.
  • Complex (and Executive) projects are generally ‘one-of-one’ and do not repeat themselves, with past projects at best providing insight only. Complex (and Executive) project managers require significant depth of knowledge in key areas to support the project’s architecture design.

Each View defines the scope and depth of the Underpinning Knowledge required for that View. Underpinning Knowledge is drawn from a broad range of disciplines, and is an essential aspect of the CPM standards. The Underpinning Knowledge provides Complex Project Managers with the ability to develop first principle solutions, to question orthodoxy and the normative, and to integrate the Views.

 

SPECIAL ATTRIBUTES

Whilst the paradigm defines the mindset, and the views define the behaviours in the workplace, the special attributes define the personal characteristics that are essential for complex project managers. The special attributes deliver two critical abilities for complex project managers:

  • they enable complex project managers to provide leadership and a pathway forward, when continuously confronted with multiple and opposing paradigms, views and dialectics
  • they enable individuals to not only survive, but flourish in what many would perceive as a high pressure and personally demanding environment.

There are five elements in the special attributes:

  1. Wisdom
  2. Action and outcome oriented
  3. Creates and leads innovative teams
  4. Focused and courageous
  5. Ability to influence.

Each element represents a different focus (view) within the special attributes, and provides a different perspective. Holism is only achieved by looking at all the elements.

Wisdom

The categories of young and old are not tied to specific ages, but rather to psychological, biological, and social qualities. As individuals progress through their lifecycle, they reach gateway points at which they make decisions that significantly shape their future. These gateway points represent transition points, in which the individual’s life vision is modified and placed into a new context.

Wisdom is developed by passing through these gateway points throughout the lifecycle, during which the individual’s psyche evolves from an undifferentiated image, into an increasingly complex internal figure that maintains a dialectic of young and old. Whilst the internal young psyche maintains significant energy and capacity for further development, the internal old psyche has already reached its potential. The location of these gateway points within the lifecycle are commonly accepted amongst ancient scholars, including the Talmud, Confucius, and Solon.

A key characteristic of complex project managers is that they do not believe they have yet reached their full potential. Rather, they continually explore and re-define the dialectic between young and old so as to stretch their personal potential.

Action and Outcome Oriented

The drive to take action and the desire to deliver outcomes are essential for complex project managers. No matter what obstacles or resistance they inevitably encounter, complex project managers remain focused on delivering the project outcomes.

Creates and Leads Innovative Teams

Complex project managers lead, inspire, and provide the energy to teams, enabling them to deliver more, both as individuals and through synergy than they have ever previously achieved. They utilise their broad range of experience to drive creativity, by providing the building blocks required to seed ideas into teams.

Focused and Courageous

Complex project managers lead from the front, create a safe environment for their team, and have the courage to push boundaries and make hard decisions.

Ability to Influence

A significant ability to influence others is essential for complex project managers – in many instances, it is only through this special attribute that project support is achieved.

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